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I have a doubt about this sentence:

Othering is a binary process between the colonizer and colonized by which the former is able to affirm his own identity, but the last is considered as the other

I'm confused about the use of "by which". Is it correct? If there are any errors in the sentence please tell me.

  • Something of your interest here and here – Usernew Nov 22 '15 at 12:45
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    Are you a colonizer? No? But you seem to be "othering" colonizers. The entire sentence is wrong. – Jasper Nov 22 '15 at 16:34
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    @jasper why is the whole sentence wrong? Other than possibly the last being the latter it seems fine. – DRF Nov 24 '15 at 15:59
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    I agree with @DRF. "Last" should be "latter", but other than that the sentence is completely correct. – Era Dec 3 '15 at 16:30
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"A process by which" describes the effect of the process. "A process in which" describes what happens in the process.

For example:

Steeping is a process by which tea is made.

In other words:

Tea is made by the process of steeping.

On the other hand:

Steeping is a process in which water absorbs flavor from tea leaves.

Means:

In the process of steeping, water absorbs flavor from tea leaves.

There is often some overlap between these uses, i.e. there are cases in which either is grammatically correct. This is because what happens in a process and what the process does are not clearly distinct. The choice of one or the other can change the connotation of the sentence.

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The easiest way to interpret the meaning of a sentence which uses by which is replacing the part comes before the by which with "which" . something like this

Othering is a binary process between the colonizer and colonized by which the former is able to affirm his own identity, but the last is considered as the other

by "a binary process" the former is able to affirm his own identity, but the last is considered as the other

Note that I didn't use othering, is, between the colonizer and colonized because respectively it's the subject of the sentence, is the auxiliary verb (do, does, is , has have, am are etc..), the rest just extends the meaning.

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