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A great American consulting firm official

What does this "great" modify? Could it modify "consulting firm?"

I think it can only modify "official". If it can modify "firm", then it should be

A great American consulting firm's official

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It can be modifying consulting firm or it can be modifying official.

Consulting firm is a noun which is restricting the sort of official, another noun, that we are discussing.

American is describing one of the nouns. Although the same word could be used as a noun in a different phrasing.

Great is describing one of the nouns.

If you wanted to be truly unambiguous...

That great American is an official at a consulting firm.

The American [person] is [acting as] an official at a consulting firm.

He is an official at a great American consulting firm.

The consulting firm is both great and American, and he is an official there.

He is a great American official at that consulting firm.

That official is both great and [an] American [person], and he officiates at that consulting firm.

This sort of ambiguity is not uncommon:

For sale : Queen Anne table by nice lady. With nice legs and big drawers.

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I don't see any problem here. A group of adjectives modifies the noun "firm" (a great American consulting firm). The official belongs to the above-mentioned firm. "A great American consulting firm" functions as an attribute to the noun "official".

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Here are two more possibilities.

There are theme parks named "Great America". It is possible that

A Great American consulting firm official

is an official who works for a consulting firm that does work for the Great America company. Or the Great America company could own a consulting firm, and the official could work for that consulting firm.

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