Do you have a book?
Have you a book?
What's the difference between them?
What kinds of verbs "do" and "have" are there?
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In the past, it was possible to form a question by simply moving the verb ahead of the subject, like in your second example. If you read Shakespeare, you'll find many such turns of phrase.
But what see I? No Thisbe do I see!
(from Midsummer Night's Dream, Act 5)
Some of that is still preserved in environments that are based on long-standing traditions. It is customary in a U.S. court, to ask:
"Mr. Smith, what say you?" instead of "What do you say?"
That said, the auxiliary verbs have taken over completely in common everyday speech. It is always "Do you[...]" rather than the other thing, except in some isolated areas over in England, where instead of asking
"Do you have a toothbrush?"
they just might ask you
"Have you a toothbrush?"