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I know that Simple Past implies completeness.

I read the book. (past)

This sentence means that I completely read the book in the past.

α) Is it the same for Future Simple?

I will read the book.

What does this sentence mean (I will start reading it or read it completely)?

β) What if specify time periods?

I will read the book by September 2013.

I will read the book after Wednesday.

What do you infer from these sentences?

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Let's look at your examples:

I read the book.

I agree with your interpretation. If I say this sentence, it means I've read the entire book.

I will read the book.

Yes, this is the same. If I only read part of the book, then this sentence is false.

I will read the book by September 2013.

Again, yes. This means you'll read the entire book sometime before September 2013.

I will read the book [sometime] after Wednesday.

And again, yes. This means you'll read the entire book, and though you're not being specific about when you'll do it, it'll be sometime after Wednesday.

  • I wonder why it has to be 'entire' book. I think it simply expresses a past event. I understand the event is not continuing anymore, finished, and can be said it's a completed action when talking about the grammar, but I don't think it necessarily means that I read the entire book. To say 'entire', more words are needed, and grammatically it's nothing wrong to say "I read the book" when you only read a few pages. Am I wrong? – karlalou Jul 5 '17 at 17:44
  • @karlalou It's because read is a telic verb, meaning that its meaning includes the concept of a well-defined endpoint (completion). – snailboat Jul 5 '17 at 18:44
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When you use will you are talking about or predicting the future. "I will read the book." can mean that you will start to read the book in the future (and read it completely) or that is your intention. When you will be done reading the book is not know, in the same way "I read the book." doesn't say when you started or when you ended reading it; you did in the past (compared to the utterance time), but the sentence doesn't say when.

For an action that is complete before something in the future, you should use the Future Perfect.

You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

By next November, I will have received my promotion.

I will have read the book by September 2013.

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