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Insects that feed on blood have the potential to transmit diseases between humans and between animals and humans.

I'd like to know whether the verb "transmit" is correctly used in the sentence.

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Yes. "Transmit" is often used in reference to any means of transferring diseases. I know in most cases it's used like "send" with a clear source and destination, but it's also sometimes used like "spread" or "carry", like it is here.

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The verb transmit is both grammatically correct and a valid word choice. Among others, Google provides the following relevant definitions:

  • cause (something) to pass on from one place or person to another
  • pass on (a disease or trait) to another

I suspect that any confusion is being caused by the lack of commas to break up phrases in the sentence. Consider instead:

Insects that feed on blood have the potential to transmit diseases between humans, and between animals and humans.

The use of the comma makes it clearer that there are two potential modes of transmission:

  1. Between human beings.
  2. Between animals and human beings (e.g. zoonotic diseases).

Without the comma, the use of the verb transmit is still a correct word-choice, but the sentence as a whole is much harder to understand.

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