What the heck is with 3? Must not be anywhere near my region. I mean, I wouldn't use "bloody" either, but that's just because I'm not a Brit, I've never even heard of Shank's pony.
Anyway, 1 and 2 could use some retargeting. You seem to mean that the length of the walk is making you upset. I would place the emphasis here:
I walk five damn miles to school every day.
You could ramp it up from kinda pissed to sheer outrage by adding more:
I walk five damn miles to this stupid fucking school every single fucking day.
"This" is used as a diminutive, having to denote which school you mean makes it feel less important. It also targets the insults more specifically at a certain school than schools in general, giving them more force.
As for your examples more specifically, 4 and 5 merely emphasize that it's an annoyance, 1 and 2 are about your current emotions relating to the subject. The sentences are pretty interchangeable inside the pairs, except "bloody" is going to sound a little strange to an American English speaker.