How weird would it be if I asked for your number knowing that we haven't been talking for long.
This sentence begins with a hypothetical yet does not end with one. Since the italicized part is not in the past tense, it would be interpreted that this is true and not part of the hypothetical. You haven't been talking to this person for long, as you said, and are wondering what they would think if you asked for their number.
How weird would it be if I asked for your number knowing that we hadn't been talking for long.
This sentences is all the same hypothetical; the italicized part is just a continuation. Since this is all hypothetical, it does not matter how long you have been talking to them, but rather you are asking them to assume that it had been a short amount of time and asking how they would react. You might ask a friend this, for example, if you were debating whether or not to ask someone you just recently met for their number.