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Why in below sentence writer has used past perfect tense i.e. since Daesh had taken?

This was my third trip to Iraq in 10 years and my second since Daesh had taken over several areas of the country.

As per my knowledge we can use present perfect:

This was my third trip to Iraq in 10 years and my second since Daesh has taken over several areas of the country.

Because Iraq is presently in the possession of Daesh.

Or simple past tense here:

This was my third trip to Iraq in 10 years and my second since Daesh taken over several areas of the country.

Because I think there is no need to explain which event happen first and which second.

Reference link.

marked as duplicate by GoDucks, Varun Nair, Nathan Tuggy, Usernew, user24743 Jan 4 '16 at 7:08

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  • We cannot say "That was my second cup of coffee since I have awoken." We would have to say either "This is my second cup since I have awoken." or "That was my second cup since I had awoken." The time-references must jibe. The time reference in a present-perfect construction must not exclude the present. (That's why "That was..." cannot go with the present perfect.) – Tᴚoɯɐuo Jan 4 '16 at 12:13
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The Past Perfect is used to express the idea that something happened before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.

The key words in your example are since and before. Both indicate that something happened relative to the third trip. Since meaning, "after the second," and before meaning, "prior to the third."

Looking at this another way, "before my third trip" can also be phrased, "since my last trip." We can call both of them, "in the interim", or "between trips."

  • In the interim, Daesh had taken over several areas of the country.
  • Between trips, Daesh had taken over several areas of the country.

As we are discussing a sequence of events in the past relative to another action, the Past Perfect is fitting.

  • Thanks for the answer. As per your explanation sentence should be like this "This was my third trip to Iraq in 10 years and Since my second trip Daesh had taken over several areas of the country." – user4084 Jan 4 '16 at 5:24
  • "Should" is a little strong, but that is a good interpretation. Cheers. – lurker Jan 4 '16 at 7:22

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