I've read different questions about pronouncing 'a' like this : Sounds of the letter a
In my native tongue-Arabic- there are 3 degrees of pronouncing 'a'
degree one is like able
degree two is like marry
degree three is like are
My confusion is in 2 things:
The symbols used in answers like æ, ə, etc. are difficult to me (please guide me how to understand them)
Can you tell me when specifically should I use each one of these three degrees?