This theological conception of experience is echoed in a 1918 letter to Scholem, in which Benjamin states that all ethics need a foundation in metaphysics, in order to understand "the absolute divine context of order, whose highest sphere is doctrine and whose embodiment and first cause is God."

I would like to ask a question regarding the use of "in order to" in the above adverbial clause of purpose. I was thought that "in order to" is possible to use only in the case when the subjects of the main and subordinate clause are the same. In my clause it would mean that the subject is "all ethics", which I find a little bit odd. Is it really so? I think that more meaningful would be when "we" (or "people") being the subject of the subordinate sentence. But this would demand a different conjunction…


It is quite common for 'in order to' to be used with different subjects where the second subject is an implied person enabled to do something by the state of the first subject.

For example 'the ladder was put against the tree in order to harvest the fruit' implies that the ladder was placed so that unspecified persons could use the ladder could get to the fruit, not that the ladder is doing the harvesting. In such cases it would be the same as saying 'the ladder was put against the tree in order to enable someone to harvest the fruit'

Similarly in your example, the 'foundation in metaphysics' is there to enable persons applying the system of ethics to understand "the absolute divine context of order..."

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