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He loves.

I’ve read some things about intransitive verbs, recently. Can “He loves”. be thought of as a complete sentence, and grammatical?

And, can

A wind comes.

and

He has.

be thought of as complete sentences, and both grammatical?

  • I've heard the expression 'He loves' in a fictional reported conversation where a person explains that man loves a woman but does not speak of it to her. It seemed to be a kind of 'shorthand' for 'he loves her'. 'He has' would be a correct conversational answer to a question beginning 'Has he...?'. – Great Crosby Jan 26 '16 at 19:48
  • Generally speaking you have to check a dictionary to see if the usage you want is an intransitive verb. If so, then technically it is OK but may not make sense as is. BTW, to have is not intransitive. – user3169 Jan 26 '16 at 20:22
  • I'm voting to close as unclear what's being asked. There are various definitions of complete sentence and widely varying ideas of what constitutes a sentence, even among linguists. I've asked you to specify what you mean in your earlier post on the same topic, referenced above. Do some research on "sentence". Read the wikipedia article on the topic, and this. Be more specific in your questions. Explain the thinking behind them. Do you believe "He loves" can be a sentence? Can you imagine how it would be used? What it would mean? – Jim Reynolds Feb 1 '16 at 5:26
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Usually the verb "loves" takes an explicit object. But it is not necessarily so. For example, some theists might answer the question:

What does God do?

by saying

He loves

In any case "he loves" is a full sentence.

  • What is a full sentence? Is there such thing as a partial sentence? – Jim Reynolds Feb 1 '16 at 5:36
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Yes, your examples are complete sentences and grammatically correct. Contexts in which these sentences would sound natural may be rare to nonexistent, but syntactically they're fine.

He has doesn't usually work as an intransitive construction, but it works as an example of ellipsis (omission). E.g.:

"Has your brother cleaned his room?"

"He has [cleaned his room]."

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    I see. I thank you. So have seems transitive. So, I may not use it like that. And, “A wind comes.” may work, too? – saySay Jan 26 '16 at 20:49
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    Iolanthe's ballad in Act II of Iolanthe by W S Gilbert and Sir Arthur Sullivan begins and ends with the sentence "He loves!". See no. 44 – Colin Fine Jan 26 '16 at 22:47
  • Actually, "He has" can work as a transitive: "Who here has a smartphone with them? He has!" (pointing). – Colin Fine Jan 26 '16 at 22:49
  • Your paragraph Yes, your examples are complete sentences and grammatically correct. Contexts in which these sentences would sound natural may be rare to nonexistent, but syntactically they're fine. can also be said of A star shoots, which is why I've voted this question as a duplicate. – GoDucks Jan 31 '16 at 16:13
  • -1 Dictionary.com have verb (used without object), present singular 1st person have, 2nd have or (Archaic) hast, 3rd has or (Archaic) hath, present plural have; past singular 1st person had, 2nd had or (Archaic) hadst or haddest, 3rd had, past plural had; past participle had; present participle having. 24. to be in possession of money or wealth: There are some who have and some who have not. – Jim Reynolds Feb 1 '16 at 5:35
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To love is not intransitive, nor is it ditransitive. Aside from religious lingo, most people who hear the "sentence"

He loves.

...will feel lost and be anticipating a direct object.

I'm curious. In what context are trying to use such a "sentence?"

No, it's not correct / grammatical.

You're other two example sentences, however, are absolutely correct!

Although, your third sentence.

He has.

requires a context in the perfect tense.

Has Joe eaten?

He has.

On the other hand, if you simply say.

He has.

Listeners will immediately anticipate the question

He has what?


To come is intransitive and doesn't require or expect a direct object. If anything, it may expect a destination, or an entire clause.

  • He comes bearing gifts.

  • They came riding in on horseback.

  • You come along.

  • The wind comes. // Better to say the wind is coming, but still it's correct.

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    -1 American Heritage Dictionary: v.intr. To feel love or sexual love for another. // Merriam-Webster online dictonary: intransitive verb : to feel affection or experience desire // Dictionary.com: verb (used without object), loved, loving. 21. to have love or affection for another person; be in love. – Jim Reynolds Feb 1 '16 at 18:30

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