I would like to know if the phrase "I've arrived by car" is grammatically correct, and if yes, what is the difference between this phrase and the phrase "I arrived by car".

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    Both are grammatically correct. More context is needed to decide which one (present perfect or simple past) to use. – user3169 Jan 31 '16 at 23:45
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    Generally speaking, I'd use the first one if I was still waiting for someone to meet me, and the second if I was recounting my trip. Both are grammatical. – J.R. Feb 1 '16 at 2:36

Both are grammatically correct, but it is hard to think of a natural situation (i.e. one that isn't contrived) where you'd use the first, rather than the second. As @user3169 said, the first is present pefect - but I can't think why you'd want to tell some one in that moment "I have arrived by car". It's more likely that you'd be answering a question like: "how did you get here today?" to which you can quite naturally answer "I arrived by car."

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    About the only situation I can think of is where arriving by car would be considered impractical or some kind kind of feat. For example, driving triumphantly to the peak of Everest. – Damien H Feb 1 '16 at 5:51

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