I have encountered people using as per se.

What does it refer to exactly? What is general sense of its usage?

  1. As per my knowledge.
  2. As per the listing/information provided.
  3. In terms of providing information.
  4. Completely different usage.
  • 3
    Before asking a question like this one, you should really consult a dictionary first. There's no sense in asking the ELL community to do that kind of legwork for you. If you've already consulted a dictionary, it's best to include that in your question (i.e., copy and paste the definition), and then explain why you are still confused about the word, even after researching its definition. It wouldn't hurt to also include a specific usage where you've seen the word or phrase used.
    – J.R.
    Jul 12, 2013 at 8:58
  • innocent, suppose you have "Henceforth, the antitrust division will treat vertical price-fixing as per se illegal". Here "as per se" means "inherently" or "intrinsically", I guess.
    – user114
    Jul 12, 2013 at 8:59
  • 1
    @innocentDemon: There are no "RULES," but you could kindly provide some clarity. Feel free to read more about grounds for closure. As a moderator, I could have closed your question, but I felt it would be more kind to offer you a chance to improve it first.
    – J.R.
    Jul 12, 2013 at 15:12
  • 2
    In addition to consulting a dictionary, it would help to add context to your question; you say you have encountered its use multiple times, so you should be able to give us an example to work with. As this already has two close votes and J.R. has given you kind pointers and a fair chance to improve the question, I'm closing it for now. If you would like to edit more information into the question and then flag it for reopening, I would be happy to oblige. Thanks!
    – WendiKidd
    Jul 12, 2013 at 16:08
  • 4
    Since per se can't be separated (se is not a lexical word in English), this must be the combination of as with per se. I don't think as per overlapping per se is possible in Standard English. Could you please add an example or two to your question so we can confirm that this is the case?
    – user230
    Jul 12, 2013 at 18:01

1 Answer 1


"Per se" means "inherently", "inevitably", "intrinsically".

The most common use is in sentences like, "Does being a secretary here per se mean that I have to take phone messages?" or "Smoking does not per se mean that you will get lung cancer, but it is a contributing factor." That is, it is used to express the idea that A always and automatically leads to or causes or implies B.

But that said, none of your examples used "per se", you used "as per", which is a different phrase. "As per" means "according to" or "as found in". Like, "As per paragraph 4.3.2(b) of the contract, you must deliver within three weeks", or "As per my last email, I will be on vacation next week." It is used to say what the source of information is for some statement that you have just made or are about to make.

  • 1
    The OP didn't give any examples, I'm afraid. Those were guesses as to how it might be used, and you can tell this by looking at the fourth option ("Completely different usage").
    – user230
    Jul 12, 2013 at 17:57
  • I took the items labeled "1" and "2" as examples. If that wasn't the intent of the question, okay, whatever. If that makes my answer inappropriate, I ask the OP to clarify.
    – Jay
    Jul 12, 2013 at 22:04

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