When strong is used after a number，say in this sentence，
We suffered severely and came back only eighty strong.
does it refer to exactly 80, or more than 80, or approximately 80 survivals?
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The Free dictionary defines (Definition No.18) 'Strong' as":
Having a specified number of units or members.
In this context, 'We suffered severely and came back only eighty strong.' simply means that 80 people survived and came back (to wherever it maybe). In plain words, this simply means:
After sheer suffering, only 80 people cam back, including me.
So the number is 80. Not more, not less.