If someone is asking me about my nationality what is the correct answer?
Question: Where are you from?
I am from...
I come from...
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It depends on the question we are answering. Number 1 would be correct in the usual case, when someone asks, "Where are you from?" In that case, we would reply, "I'm from Iran," for example. However, if the person asked us, "Where did you come from?" it may be more natural to answer, "I come from Iran."
I think "I am from" is referring to your origin (that doesn't change) ex: "I am from England" (= "I was born in England"). (A reminder: think about your name ex: "I am Chloé, nice to meet you")
In parallel, "I come from" is more referring to a present situation ex: "I come from France". These two expressions in a same sentence you'd be something like
"Hi! My name is Chloé, I am from England but now I'm visiting Europe. I've visited Portugal and Spain, and now I am landing in Belgium. I come from France , I took the airplane in Paris."
In this example, the person says to be born in England, and to arrive from France.
A way to remember this would be thinking about "I come from" : Think about come and go! (You COME from somewhere, to GO somewhere else. Think about traveling, it may help).
COME and GO --> situation can change
Are --> Never changes
I think this is correct, from my logic it makes sense, but I'm not 100% sure.
I like the Are and Do distinction. "Are" is more solid, an origin and denotes a particular place. "Were Do" or "Do", is usually used as a verb and denotes action, so it may not be a place of origin. When people ask the question, "where are you from?" They usually want to know your place of origin on Earth. This entire discussion is arbitrary and fraught with opinion. Pick what you like.
First of all you shouldn't ask this way "Where do you come from?" grammatically wrong, "do" is already your VERB and "come" is also a VERB so it's kind of dangling. It's better to ask "Where are you from?" and the answer depends on the situation. For instance, I'm a Filipino and I went to Thailand. If someone asked me "Where are you from?" I would say, "I come from the Philippines." because I was in the Philippines and I moved to another country. If I replied to the person "Where are you from?" he would say "I am from Thailand." because he doesn't come from anywhere else.