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Here is a sentence which meaning I can't understand clearly:

Ever since I was a child I have been happiest living in the sphere of a story. [Source]

Does "happiest" relate to "living" (attributive adjective) or to "I" (predicative adjective)?
What tenses are used here?

Is it

  Present Perfect Continuous (have been living)   
  Present Perfect (have been happiest) + adverbial clause (living)  

or maybe something else?

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You can think of this as clause with when missing:

Ever since I was a child I have been happiest when living in the sphere of a story.

Happiest is adjectival.

For present perfect continuous, you'd need an adverb in that position:

The sea level has been most rapidly rising in the Southern Ocean.

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Ever since I was a child I have been happiest living in the sphere of a story.

The base phrase is "I have been happiest (how)", happiest refers to "I".

However you could say:

Ever since I was a child I have been living happily in the sphere of a story.

In this example, happily modifies living.

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