Does "any more" in this sentence still mean "still, from now on"?
No, it does not.
In your example sentence,
[...] the reader soon feels that such sartorial concerns, although worthy of attention, have superseded any more directly literary aims.
"More" modifies "directly", which modifies "literary", which modifies "aims".
The sentence could be re-written:
[...] the reader soon feels that such sartorial concerns, although worthy of attention, have superseded any aims that are more directly literary.
In your example, the juxtaposition of "any" and "more" is entirely incidental, and does not indicate the idiomatic expression "any more".
The author of the sentence is saying that the novelist has lavished such attention on describing clothing (the "sartorial concerns"), that the reader will come to feel it a fault in the novel, and that the reader might surmise that the novelist was more concerned with describing clothing than with whether doing so enhanced the literary quality of the novel (the "more directly literary aims", "any" of which the reader "feels" were "superseded" by the clothing descriptions.)
All of which is is a rather elaborate and diplomatic way of saying, "Ugh, too many descriptions of clothing!"