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At first, Gryffindors passing the giant hourglasses that recorded the house points the next day thought there'd been a mistake. How could they suddenly have a hundred and fifty points fewer than yesterday? And then the story started to spread: Harry Potter, the famous Harry Potter, their hero of two Quidditch matches, had lost them all those points, him and a couple of other stupid first years. (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)

The bold structure has an adjective (fewer) instead of past participle. But it seems highly resembling this: 22.(used with a past participle) have something done to suffer the effects of what somebody else does to you. She had her bag stolen. (Oxford Advanced). Are the two the same cases or not?

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They are not the same, because "a hundred and fifty points fewer than yesterday" is not a past participle.

Your example could also have been worded

How could they suddenly have a hundred and fifty fewer points than yesterday?

The question is is asking, how could the team have lost 150 points.

This is essentially the first sense of have from the dictionary you linked, "to own, hold or possess something"; in this case the thing is points.

A similar example, as far as the use of to have goes, would be,

At the end of the game, the Bears had 49 points and the Giants had 17.

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