The verb yield has multiple meanings. One of the meanings is “result in”, but not all results can be expressed with yield. Yield can only be applied to results that fit with the purpose of the action, not to unexpected byproducts. For example:
The experiment to produce a better hair dye yielded some data on how to produce a nice blonde shade.
The experiment to produce a better hair dye resulted in an explosion.
In the second sentence, the verb yield can't be used, because the explosion has nothing to do with the purpose of the experiment.
The Cambridge English Dictionary defines that meaning as “to supply or produce something positive such as a profit, an amount of food or information”, but I don't think this definition expresses the meaning completely accurately. Consider one of the examples given in the dictionary:
Early radio equipment yielded poor sound quality.
Here, the outcome is not positive; but sound quality is the purpose of radio equipment, so the verb yield is appropriate.
Roughly speaking, a yield is something expected. It might not be the desired outcome, but it's something in the right category. Taking another example given by the Cambridge dictionary:
The experiments yielded some surprising results.
The results weren't the expected ones, but the purpose of an experiment is to produce results, so an experiment yields results whether they are the expected ones or not.
The meaning in finance is related: the yield of an investment is how much money you get from the investment. Getting that money is the purpose of the investment.
About your sentence:
?Telling lies yields bad consequences.
That sounds weird. Assuming that the bad consequences are to the liar, they go against the goal of the lies, so the natural way to formulate this sentence is something like “telling lies results in bad consequences”. However, you can use the word yield, but it means something a little different: the sentence with yields conveys that the act of lying mechanically implies bad consequences, not necessarily just for the liar. This supposes a philosophical background where all actions have consequences and the distinction between consequence and purpose is somewhat blurred. The most natural interpretation of “telling lies results in bad consequences” is “if you lie, then sooner or later an indirect consequence of that lie will be something that is bad for you”. It expresses a statistical certainty. On the other hand, “telling lies yields bad consequences” says roughly “it's a law of the universe that lies cause bad things”. It expresses a mechanical certainty.