a) The more I study, the less I learn.
b) More I study, less I learn.
Could we rewrite the sentence shown under the letter a) in the form shown under the letter b) without breaking any grammatical rule? If not, why not?
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This construction is an idiom which is not governed by any general grammatical rule, but is in effect a rule all by itself. Its structure is
The [x-ER], the [x-ER]
where the two [x-ER]s are parallel expressions in the comparative grade.
The [more], the [merrier]
[x-ER] need not be a simple adjective; it can be a more complex (or compound) phrase or full clause, with the comparative fronted:
The [higher they rise], the [harder they fall]
The [more effort I put into something I care about], the [more satisfaction I get out of it]
But the thes are essential components; they cannot ordinarily be omitted. To be sure, you may hear someone drop them in speech, under the pressure of strong emotion (real or simulated):
Crap. Harder I work, less I get done. Crap.
But that should not be done in writing, unless what you're writing is dialogue.