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From Chemguide:

Chlorine to iodine

Considering the halogens from chlorine to iodine, it is the lattice enthalpy which has fallen most. It falls by 87 kJ mol-1. By contrast, the heat needed to remove the electron has only fallen by 54 kJ mol-1.

Shouldn't it be "has fallen the most"?

There are several characteristics, and one has fallen by the highest amount compared with the others.

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    Either is fine. ............ New housing starts are up in Q2, but of all the economic strength indicators, the new jobs number has risen (the) most. – Tᴚoɯɐuo Apr 12 '16 at 18:43
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    As an adverbal use of most, it's fine without a definite article, for example in the sentence "That was one of things she liked most about him". – JavaLatte Apr 12 '16 at 19:25
  • P.S. "Practical English Usage, Unit 356.5" (Damkerng) – CowperKettle Apr 14 '16 at 4:01
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    Possible duplicate of most versus the most. Also of interest is Are “most” and “the most” the same? – choster Apr 27 '16 at 19:05
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You can use either of the following:

it is the lattice enthalpy which has fallen most

or

it is lattice enthalpy which has fallen the most

A repetitive use of "the" makes it somewhat unnatural, although not grammatically incorrect.

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