With your first example you correctly establish that
- for the 'time to' variant you use the 'to ..' form (infinitive)
- and for the 'time for' variant you should use the '..-ing' form (gerund).
Both these forms are correct and have roughly the same meaning. I refer you to this article about infinitives versus gerund for a description of the similarities and subtle differences between them. Main point I take is this:
"Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract."
Your second example is wrong, but that's more because you don't 'make a coffee break', you 'take' one or 'have' one. So in your third example the correct first form would be 'It's time to take a coffee break'.