I take pride/pleasure/satisfaction/joy in being a successful man.
I take sadness/dissatisfaction/unhappiness in being an unsuccessful
There are no written grammatical rules to explain this, it is a convention. To explain the convention subjectively, I would say that this is to do with how the noun phrase is perceived.
So in the first sentence, "pleasure" is used as a noun, "the state or feeling of being pleased". The corresponding verb is chosen depending on the accepted action on that verb. Being proud or pleased is associated with doing something to be proud or pleased about, therefore you achieve pride, you proactively go out and seize the pride, therefore "to take" the pride is an appropriate verb.
In the second sentence, it would sound correct to say "I feel sadness in ..." or "I find great sadness in ...". In this case "sadness" is not something someone seeks to acquire or take, sadness is found, or thrust upon someone and felt. therefore "to find" is an appropriate verb.
This is not a hard and fast rule, for example, it is not common to say "I create pride" or "I acquire pride", and it is also not common to say "I receive sadness" or "I discover sadness". However, generally speaking the action upon the noun in chosen depending on how the noun (sadness, pride) is perceived.