The meaning is broadly the same, but the sentences are not always applicable in the same circumstances.
“I'm sure he will make a good teacher” implies that he is currently not a teacher, and that when (or if) he becomes a teacher, he will be a good one.
“I'm sure he will be a good teacher” is similar, but applies to a definite point in time, whereas “will make” applies to an unspecified (and possibly hypothetical) future time.
“I'm sure he will become a good teacher” implies that he is currently not a good teacher, either because he is currently not a teacher, or because he is currently a bad teacher.
I'm sure he will make a good teacher, if he decides to quit his office job.
I'm sure he will be a good teacher. Let's hire him for the next term.
I'm sure he will become a good teacher, after a few more years' experience. Right now he's mediocre.
Some examples in the wild:
signs your boyfriend will make a good husband [The marriage will turn him into husband, and the question is whether he'll turn into a good husband or a bad husband.]
ways to tell if he'll be a good husband [Same question as the previous one really, but phrased differently. After the marriage happens, he will be a husband; will he be a good one or a bad one?]
will my boyfriend become a good husband? [Here, means the same as the previous two.]
Separate or stay? Is there a chance he'll become a good husband? [Here, he is already a husband, but not a good one.]
The nuances can change if you add a time complement.
I'm sure he will make a good teacher in the fullness of time. But right now, he's mediocre.
I'm sure he will become a good teacher when he completes his education degree.
“Make” carries a sense of achievement, whereas “become” sounds more passive.
In the past tense, the implications are somewhat different for make. “He made a good teacher” makes me think that he is no longer a teacher.