There are a variety of words in English that mean that people think an idea is true but it is not proven: believe, suppose, think, assume, presume, theorize, speculate, probably others. They indicate varying degrees of certainty, like "believe" would be more certain than "assume", but there is no simple ordering of them from least certain to most certain. There is definitely no quantification of certainty, like you can't say that "believe" means 72% certain while "think" means 58% or anything like that.
The level of certainty can be different depending on context and, in spoken English, tone of voice.
So "X is believed to be ..." and "X is supposed to be ..." essentially mean the same thing. Depending on context, one might indicate a higher level of certainty. There is no other difference.
Except, as politicallycorrect says, "supposed" can also mean "intended". This may or may not make sense in any given context. If someone said, "Radioactive decay is supposed to be the reason for the isotope distribution in this sample", I would take that to mean "is believed to be the reason". But if someone said, "Love is supposed to be the reason for marriage", they probably mean that love should be the reason.