What movement does John make according to the sentence? This sentence is taken from a dictionary, which explains the usage of "go".
John went rushing off down the corridor.
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Possibly the best way to explain is with some practical examples:
Before I could warn him that the floor was wet, John went rushing off down the corridor and slipped over.
As soon as he heard that there were fresh doughnuts in the canteen, John went rushing off down the corridor to get some.
The phrase 'Hurried away' is generally interchangeable.
In this context, down is the direction that John went. It's commonly used in English but ambiguous - you could, just as easily, have used 'up' or 'along'.
To 'rush off' is a phrasal verb meaning to hurry away.
Just to confuse things even further for the unfortunate learner, there is an alternative meaning for the phrasal verb 'rush off' meaning to be busy - I'm rushed off my feet today