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I thought prepositions always have a noun after itself. But these two doesn't.

To begin/start with,......

let's just get this over with.

why nothing is after the preposition?

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    You thought wrong. Winston Churchill is (falsely, I'm sure) reputed to have poked fun at your misconception with Ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put. Which sounds ridiculous to any native speaker (and thereby proves that the "rule" is stupid). – FumbleFingers Jun 23 '16 at 11:48
  • I'm sorry but can you explain what Churchill said more explicitly? – JBL Jun 23 '16 at 11:59
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    @FumbleFingers I think this is a different matter: OP wants to know the object of with in these two expressions, which is actually a pretty interesting question. – StoneyB Jun 23 '16 at 12:14
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To begin/start with, when not followed by a noun, are parenthetical expressions that mean in the first place or initially.

used to emphasize the first or most significant of a list of reasons, opinions, etc. (OED)

To get something over with is a phrasal verb (Cambridge). The 'with' can be analyzed as a particle, not a preposition.

The particles in phrasal verbs do not have to be followed by a noun:

How soon are you going to get up?

When did you last throw up?

He said he needed to get out.

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