# “every” vs “each”?

Consider:

The ten lucky winners will ................. receive \$1,000.

A) every

B) each

The answer in the book is each. As far as I know, every and each are used before singular nouns. I cannot understand the grammatical structure of the sentence. The only thing that I can guess is that each, as oppose to every, is also pronoun but, I don't know how this would help!

Note 1: The book preview option is not available although the book can be found on the google books!

Note 2: I know each has different connotation from every; the former has one-by-one connotation, the latter has a collective connotation; the problem is about the grammar.

• – MadWard Jun 27 '16 at 15:21
• @MadWard So, why has each been used between will and receive ? – Cardinal Jun 27 '16 at 15:37
• In your example, the word each could be placed after winners, will, or \$1000 with no change in meaning (though the middle one of those three is undoubtedly more common overall). This is an adverbial usage (meaning "apiece"), not adjectival (placed before the noun it modifies). – FumbleFingers Jun 27 '16 at 16:58

The ten lucky winners will......receive \$1,000.

Each and every are often similar in meaning. The only difference is between their usage as follows:

First, you use each when there are two or more things in a group, whereas you use every when there are three or more things in a group.

Second, the usage of each gives stress to individual things in the group, whereas every refers to things in the group as a whole. For example, every student passed the test = All the students passed the test.

Third, each is used as a determinor, pronoun, or adverb, but every is only used as a determiner.

Each and every are only interchangeable to convey the same meaning when there are three or more things in a group, and we use them as a determiner, without considering the stress they indicate.

Look at the following sentences to find how every is used as a determiner, and each is used as a determiner, pronoun, and adverb:

Every lucky winner will receive \$1,000. (determiner)

Every one of the ten lucky winners will receive \$1,000.(determiner)

Each lucky winner will receive \$1,000. (determiner)

Each of the ten lucky winners will receive \$1000.(pronoun)

The ten lucky winners will each receive \$1,000. (pronoun)

As 'each' as a pronoun fits in the blank space of the sentence presented by the OP, you cannot use the determiner every here.

• Thank you for the answer. The interesting point is that each as an adverb doesn't exist in Macmillan and Cambridge dictionaries whereas it does in Merriam-Webster and Oxford. By the way, can you tell me why the pronoun can be placed between the auxiliary and the infinitive? I mean, will and receive. – Cardinal Jun 28 '16 at 5:09
• I think to place each after a modal, auxiliary verb, or to be verb is normal. – Khan Jun 28 '16 at 10:07

The syntactic difference (between the possible usage of each and every) is probably best demonstrated by examples.

CORRECT: There were five men. Each had a sword and a bow.
CORRECT: There were five men. Each man had a sword and a bow.
CORRECT: There were five men. Each of them had a sword and a bow.
INCORRECT: There were five men. Every had a sword and a bow.
FIXED: There were five men. Every man had a sword and a bow.
INCORRECT: There were five men. Every of them had a sword and a bow.
FIXED: There were five men. Every one of them had a sword and a bow.

CORRECT: They each had a sword and a bow.
CORRECT: Each of them had a sword and a bow.
INCORRECT: They every had a sword and a bow.
FIXED: Every one of them had a sword and a bow.

CORRECT: They could each choose to use a sword or a bow.
CORRECT: Each of them could choose to use a sword or a bow.
INCORRECT: They could every choose to use a sword or a bow.
FIXED: Every one of them could choose to use a sword or a bow.

The difference is well explained in Solutions 2nd edition Intermediate Student's book.

# Determiners

Each and Every are followed by a singular countable noun.
Each is used when all the people or things it refers to are seen individually. Every is used to refer to all the people or things.

Each egg is painted in different colours.
Every egg can be purchased for ten euros.

• Both can be followed by other word class. – V.V. Jun 28 '16 at 2:02

"Each" is used when addressing individual members of a group

The ten lucky winners will each receive \$1,000.
Each of the ten lucky winners will receive \$1,000.

"Every" is used to describe members of a group (singular - winner)

Every lucky winner will receive \$1,000.

They can also be combined

Every lucky winner will each receive \$1,000.