What is the right phrase for calling someone who is studying medicine? I've seen "medical student" a lot but I doubt about it mostly because the student him/herself is not medical! It's his/her field of study that is medical. Also I've seen that we call the school "School of medicine". What form is the true one?
Student of medicine and School of Medicine are the older traditional terms, but medical student and medical school are far more common today in spoken English (at least in the US).
Adjectives are not always references to properties that inhere in the noun; they can indicate a relationship or association.