I ran into a sentence containing involved in and I think in this sentence, the verb should be used in its active form but there are many sentences like this.

The four-step process involved in the creation of the mural took a year to complete.

Can I change the phrase the four-step process involved in... into the four-step process which was involved in...?

1 Answer 1


The four-step process which was involved in the creation of the mural took a year to complete.

The boy who is talking to the teacher is my friend.

The relative pronoun + be verb can sometimes be omitted from relative clauses. Both ways are acceptable.

Regarding involving and involved in, it usually follows this pattern:

bigger thing involves smaller thing

smaller thing is involved in bigger thing

Let's use John and traffic accident. It's pretty clear that in a traffic accident there are usually many factors and sometimes many people so traffic accident will be our big thing and John will be our small thing.

John was involved in the traffic accident.

There was a traffic accident involving John.

  • Amazing. The two patterns that you mentioned are exactly what made me confused. Thanks for your great explanation. Jul 7, 2016 at 0:26
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    I usually use square brackets as the [orthographic] convention to indicate that some text element such as [which was] could be included in order to help someone parse a construction. But perhaps that's because of my programming background. But maybe you've got more going for you with strikethrough (which I don't think works in SO comments, so I'm not even going to try! :) because in linguistic terms we normally say such elements have been "deleted". Whatever - I think this is an excellent answer on all fronts. Jul 7, 2016 at 1:32
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    @FumbleFingers To be honest I've been wavering between various notations. I (and many others here I imagine), also have a programming background and as such it would be much easier if there was an accepted standard. I have not yet found one.
    – Leo
    Jul 7, 2016 at 1:54
  • You guys meant this: The boy (who is) talking to the teacher is my friend? I prefer omitted to deleted as I often see the former in linguistic books. Jul 7, 2016 at 2:24
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    @HồQuangTrung We are discussing what types of notation (brackets, braces, parentheses, strikethrough, asterisks, slashes etc.) we should be using.
    – Leo
    Jul 7, 2016 at 2:29

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