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Based on your explanation, I have come up with a few example sentences that I have tried to understand. Please tell me if I understand it right or not.

  1. The United States is not a direct democracy, in the sense of a country in which laws (and other government decisions) are made predominantly by majority vote.

Here does it mean US is not a direct democracy in the manner of way a country X is? I mean for example like Switzerland. So does it mean to say US is not a democracy in the manner that Switzerland is?

  1. Germany was not a democracy in the British sense.

Germany is not a democracy in the way Britain is? Right?

  1. As Jean-Jacques Rousseau highlighted in The Social Contract, democracy in its political sense can only be efficient when the general will of the people is the same as each and every individual will.

Does it mean democracy as understood politically or democracy in a political manner? Also, what would democracy in a constitutional sense mean?

  1. Time in a philosophical sense and time in a scientific sense.

Does it mean time as understood by philosophers or on the basis of philosophical writings? and time as understood by scientists or on the basis of scientific writings? Am I right?

  1. When we say love in a religious sense and love in a modern sense.

Does it mean love as prescribed by religion and love as practiced in modern times?

Please help me with the above sentences.

Thank you.

  • It's a rather strange thing to say, given that no country primarily uses referendums as the means of enacting legislation. By that definition, "direct democracy" definitely doesn't exist (and in practice, probably never could). – FumbleFingers Jul 14 '16 at 18:07
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X in the Y sense means that Y uses the word X to describe something that is part of Y, and we need to clarify that because X otherwise has a different meaning.

Love in the religious sense - Religion uses the word "love" to describe something that is part of "religion", and we need to clarify that because "love" is otherwise a word with an independent meaning apart from "religion."

Time in the philosophical sense - Philosophy uses the word "time" to describe something that is part of "philosophy", and we need to clarify that because "time" is otherwise a word with an independent meaning apart from "philosophy."

Etc.

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{word} in the {X} sense or {word} in the sense of {X} refers to a particular meaning or set of associated ideas in play when {word} is employed in the context of {X}.

The first example tells you exactly what sense it has in mind: "direct democracy ... in the sense of a country in which laws...are made predominantly by majority vote".

The second example does not define the sense, but alludes to it: "democracy in the British sense". Democracy as practiced in Britain.

The third example is not very clear. Rather than define "democracy", the author might have done better to define efficient, "efficient in the political sense of the general will and the individual will being in agreement".

The fourth sentence implies that there is some consensus among philosophers regarding Time, and also some consensus among scientists regarding Time, and that these two groups have different ways of understanding Time.

The fourth sentence refers to two different contexts where the word love is used, in religion and in contemporary secular culture which it calls "modern". Religious "love" might refer to spiritual and modern "love" to carnal or romantic love, for example.

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