What does "Both" refer to in the following paragraph?

The programme's specific objectives are: - to promote structured cooperation between higher education institutions and enhance the quality in European higher education with a distinct European added value, attractive both within the European Union and beyond its borders.

Thanks in advance

  • 3
    What do you think it might refer to?
    – user230
    Sep 2 '13 at 16:34

If you remove "both" this sentence will still mean the same thing. It simply emphasizes that the program will be attractive outside the EU. You use this style to signal that the second part of the conjunction is a surprise. "Beyond its borders" in this case.


It means that the program is:

a) attractive within the European union AND b) attractive beyond the borders of the European Union

By including the word both, the sentence implies that the program is equally attractive on cases a) and b)

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