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A fascinating world of scientific wonders, the amphibian species is full of unusual and extreme adaptations and is home to numerous unsolved mysteries.

Amphibians

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A fascinating world of scientific wonders, the amphibian species is full of unusual and extreme adaptations and is home to numerous unsolved mysteries.

I'm not at all sure about the factual content of your example. No matter, it works like this:

It's not an adverb phrase. The sequence in italics is a noun phrase in predicative adjunct function: predicative because it is related to the predicand, "the amphibian species", and adjunct because it is an optional item in clause structure.

Predicative adjuncts are not restricted to noun phrases: they can also be adjective or preposition phrases:

[1] Unwilling to accept the terms, Ed resigned.

[2] In a bad temper, as usual, John walked on ahead of the main party.

The italicised sequence in [1] is an adjective phrase that relates to a predicand (the subject, “Ed”). Likewise in [2], the italicised preposition phrase relates to a predicand (the subject, John). The adjuncts ascribe some property to Ed and John respectively.

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