2

This question already has an answer here:

I learned that which and that are interchangeable; and I also learned that *which8 can be converted to and it.

Then how about these sentences?

  1. In this chapter we presented a new context sharing scheme within a pervasive and ad-hoc network that can address the problem in many-to-many communication: a large number of context exchanges.

  2. In this chapter we presented a new context sharing scheme within a pervasive and ad-hoc network which can address the problem in many-to-many communication: a large number of context exchanges.

  3. In this chapter we presented a new context sharing scheme within a pervasive and ad-hoc network, which can address the problem in many-to-many communication: a large number of context exchanges.

  1. Do 1 and 2 convey the exactly same meaning?
  2. How about 3? I think 3 is the correct statement, as what addresses the problem is "scheme" not "network" so there should be a *which" to explicitly show that.

marked as duplicate by Alan Carmack, Em., Nathan Tuggy, jimsug, Glorfindel Jul 31 '16 at 6:56

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

2

While that and which are both relative pronouns, I wouldn't call them interchangeable. It all boils down to whether or not the information in the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence.

That is to say, if the clause is restrictive, meaning you can't eliminate it without changing the meaning, then use that. On the other hand, if the clause is nonrestrictive, meaning that the information contained within the clause is extraneous then use which. Typically, clauses using which are set off from the sentence with commas.

So in answer to your question, semantically number one and number two mean the same thing; however, typically number two would be the correct choice as the information can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence (i.e. it is a nonrestrictive clause); but if I were editing you, I'd correct it to number three, as it's customary to set nonrestrictive clauses apart from the rest of the sentence.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.