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A gerund is a word that functions as a Noun. It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the base form of a Verb.

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“The books stacked”or “The books stacking”

I'm totally confused. The books stacking on the two top shelves are physics books. The books stacked on the two top shelves are physics books Any ideas? And why?
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Which is the gerund and participle?

What is compound gerund and how would I separate them from perfect participles? Like I heard of his having gained a promotion He went away having forgotten it
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Which is the gerund and participle here?

Having forgotten him, he went away. Is 'having' gerund or participle? Is 'forgotten' gerund or participle? And why?
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25 views

Is it idiomatic to use an infinitive after gerund?

for example: 1.stop trying to impress others 2.stop trying to please everyone Can we use an infinitive after gerund? Is it grammatically normal?
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57 views

How do you interpret “is always being”? Is it grammatically correct to say?

How do you interpret "is always being"? Is it grammatically correct to say: John is always being generous. He is always being late.
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Should not we use “operation” instead of “operating” in this definition?

I read a definition of vivisection which was: Operating on live animals If operating is gerund we can't use preposition after it. Is it an exception?
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noun and verb usage interchangeably [duplicate]

In the following examples, the world "talk" was used as a verb and as a noun: I look forward to talk to you more soon, enjoy your day! I look forward to talking to you more soon, enjoy your day! ...
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use of gerund after 'enjoy' [duplicate]

Look at this sentence below. We need to find if any part of the sentence is wrong The cruel giant enjoyed/to persecute the boys/who lived near his home. First I thought that this is a correct ...
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41 views

it is (of) no use V-ing / to V

I was told that "it is no use" is followed by a gerund, not an infinitive in current English. What about the "it is of no use"? Does it pattern in the same way? Consider the following: It is no use ...
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“To book” or “to booking”?

I had a debate with my friend (English is not our mother tongue) because I found this phrase bit wierd. We were almost close to booking tickets to London. I thought using 'almost' and 'close' ...
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2answers
185 views

Is “I don't like girls smoking” a correct sentence?

I have two questions: 1. To express the same meaning as "I don't like girls who smoke." can I say "I don't like girls smoking."? It sounds kind of odd to me but I think it is not wrong. 2. ...
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1answer
41 views

“is” and “was” in the same phrase: What is the tense? Past or present?

I've come across with the sentence below: that its not affecting me, that was its effect. I've lost the tense of sentence. Is it past or present? The full text is here: As if he could read my ...
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1answer
30 views

Can we put infinitives at the beginning in order to emphasize them?

In order to emphasize the infinitive, can I change its position? Example, 1-) Your brother has some opportunities to get a better education in the U.K, but to go to the U.S, he doesn't have any ...
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2answers
43 views

-er suffix help

Is there a word for of nouns with the suffix er but have the base of a verb? Ex. Sleeper, singer, swimmer. a type of noun that performs an action. The closest thing I can find is gerund, but I have ...
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443 views

“I work” vs “I am working” / “I live” vs “I am living”?

I just watched two IELTS speaking videos. The first one's result is 8.5-9.0 and the second one's result is 9.0. IELTS speaking Band Score 8.5-9.0: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzzOowpCryw IELTS ...
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Can the adverb “exclusively” in the sentence be replaced with an adjective without changing the meaning of the sentence?

I came across this sentence in an online article. Some medical literature has found that exclusively breastfeeding during the first four to six months of life may decrease your baby’s risk of ...
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1answer
109 views

“thought of” vs “was thinking of”

After she underwent her very first breakup she thought of suicide. and After she underwent her very first breakup she was thinking of suicide. What's the difference between thought of and was ...
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1answer
63 views

The function of “but” as a preposition

Is the function of "but" in the sentences below a preposition, please? If so, what's the exact rule on the case? That is, what part of speech is used after it, a bare infinitive, a full-infinitive, an ...
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1answer
44 views

Can I use “Verb + Infinitive + Gerund”?

Can verb, infinitive, and gerund be used together? Especially in this sentence: That book has helped me to overcome my struggling. Helped + To overcome + Struggling
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Sentence condensers

I got an assignment for my linguistics class, but I don´t understand what it means. Search through the text and find examples of present and past participles, infinitives and gerunds used as ...
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Stayed at home ‘for cooking/to cook’

Thank you guys, As a non-native speaker, I wondered which one sounds more naturally. (in academic writing) Mothers, traditionally, stayed at home to cook and look after their children. Mothers, ...
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1answer
31 views

Is this sentence using “Writing” and “Advertising” correct?

My intention is to explain that all writing (as an activity) is advertising (as an activity). Same goes for the second sentence. Does this sentence convey an explanation mentioned above? All ...
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1answer
24 views

Why these are participles not gerunds?

"Hearing a noise,he woke up." here hearing is said to be a participle. But how it acts as an adjective? Again, "By working hard, you can prosper." Is working a participle or gerund?
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43 views

Why is “preventing” correct in this sentence?

I have read this sentence In 1868, Sioux leaders signed a [a]treaty [b]preventing whites from [c]travelling through the Sioux [d]territorial" I know the answer is territorial, but I thought it had ...
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Gerund question: “I could see it going down the drain.”

I could see it going down the drain. In this sentence, I want to ask whether "going" is a gerund or "going down" is a phrasal verb. And is the word "see" modifying "it" or is "going" modifying "it"? ...
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How do I know when to use V+to+present simple, v+ gerund, or v+to+gerund?

How do I know when to use V+to+present simple, v+ gerund, or v+to+gerund? I look forward seeing you. I look forward to see you. I look forward to hearing from you. I look forward to hear from you. ...
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2answers
339 views

Passive Voice with gerund

Is it really possible to make a passive form of the sentence They've just finished filming the new James Bond film.? The key says that the passive for it is The new James Bond film has just finished ...
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Gerund at the beginning of a sentence

I just noticed a sentence in an academic paper which says: To move into this conceptual terrain has required a certain amount of defiance of the conventional wisdom that questions of migration ...
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4answers
29 views

Why does “I'm voting for John Doe” have the same meaning of “I will vote for John Doe”?

I don't understand this particular use of the gerund yet. To me, such a phrase (the first) sounds more like a person is already voting for John Doe, in the present, not that they will do it in the ...
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53 views

Is this grammatical? 'Having done the procedure allowed determining certain aspects of the problem in question'

Is this grammatical? 'Having done the procedure allowed determining certain aspects of the problem in question' Namely, can I use the perfect gerund here if what I mean is that only after the ...
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1answer
192 views

infinitive vs gerund usage

Is this sentence correct? "For me, in fact, it is really important to knowing people that may make you culturally richer" Should it be "important to know" or "important to knowing"? What's the ...
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71 views

“She approved my having been called” is this grammatically correct? [duplicate]

She approved my having been called my or me? is it the gerund or the participle?
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140 views

Use of “to be joining”

I'm studying English and I've read this sentence: I'm very happy to be joining this team Why is it possible to use "to be joining"? Thanks!
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do you mind me vs do you mind if

Ok , I have two sentences : Do you mind if I open the window? Do you mind me opening the window? Are both of them correct? If yes , do they have the same meaning ? Thanks for helping
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“A slow moving” vs. “A slowly moving”

which of the following sentences is even more correct? There is a slow moving vehicle ahead. Or there is a slowly moving vehicle ahead. What is the difference between them. To ...
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Difference between infinitive phrase and gerund phrase as subject

What's the difference in meaning between these two sentences: To find fault with others is easy. Finding fault with others is easy. Also more generally, what's the difference between ...
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1answer
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The fact that + verb (inf. vs gerund)

I need help filling out my Work & Travel application. In the personal statement section, I have to write what I hope to experience during my time in the US. I wrote: I will experience a new ...
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3answers
685 views

“Sound of a heavy rain” vs. “Sound of heavy raining”

I came across this sentence. it is sound of a heavy rain. So why isn’t this way: it is sound of heavy raining. I used raining instead of rain because, I think, rain fits more into ...
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1answer
111 views

In “machine learning”, is “learning” a noun, adjective or gerund? Please explain

In the phrase “machine learning”it is really confusing for me to get the meaning of it in its grammatical sense.
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Using “Before” with gerunds

Consider this sentence: M couples leave a party... What is the number of men before couples leave What is the proper word for the bold part: Before couples leave Before leaving of couples Before ...
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Punctuation with gerunds

Can someone please help me locate the punctuation rule for gerunds? I am almost certain a comma should be placed before the gerund "claiming" in the sentence below, but I cannot find any grammatical ...
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Why is “it's nice to hearing from you” wrong?

why don't we say: it is nice to hearing from you is it because nice does not come from a verb, like confessed to, opposed to, close to, in the expression such as I am opposed to drinking, or I am ...
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2answers
3k views

being vs having been

Which one is correct here? 1 Having been disturbed, he left the house. OR Being disturbed, he left the house . 2 Being disturbed by the children, the old man left the park. OR Having been ...
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111 views

to-infinitive / to+-ing (preposition)

In the following example: "It's necessary to do an exam to follow in this school" "to do" is a to-infinitive and it can be replaced by a noun to prove that "to" is not a preposition. E.g.: "It's ...
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37 views

should I use “for free download” or “for free downloading”?

I was going to write that something is ready for free download. But maybe for free downloading is the right grammar?
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1answer
32 views

took to drinking OR started to drink

Which phrase can replace the bold part,if its incorrect. The woman left her husband immediately after he lost his job and he took to drink alcohol excessively. a. started to drink b. took to ...
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1answer
49 views

Use of preposition 'of'

"I saw him playing cards." When this line is transformed,which of two following is correct and why? "I saw his playing cards". "I saw his playing of cards."
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108 views

Use of 'the' before gerund and change in meaning

"Playing cards is not allowed here." "The playing of cards is not allowed here." Why do we need to use 'of' when 'the' is placed before gerund?
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451 views

Gerund vs Participle

"I saw the storm approaching." In above line approaching is describing storm. Gerund is used as objective complement to describe object. Participle like an adjective describes a noun or pronoun. ...
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404 views

some questions of gerund forms

According to the image below My cat, Shadow, is always being naughty. in my opinion, it's a temporary situation so why gerund form? and also in the last line Why doesn't Shadow learn? Is it ...