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In your quote, the meaning of provide for is to act to prepare for something (Wiktionary, verb sense 2).

We may rephrase the quotation this way:

It turns out that there are contractual answers as well: creditors can prepare for these possibilities in advance, not between themselves but by taking security interests in your assets—in other words, a right to take back your property directly if you run out of money.

It is not the sense you quoted as 2.2 (of a law) enable or allow (something to be done).