You can make both work, but you are missing articles and verbs.
If you simplify the sentence to the bare minimum of "He offered me" then to answer the question "what did he offer?" you would say "a price" so "He offered me a price."
Then we want to describe the price, we can say either "a price ten dollars lower" or "ten dollar lower price." Notice dollar ...
Grammatical but Possibly Awkward
The example sentences in the question are not grammatically wrong. Adjectives are most often followed by nouns, but elided forms and various fixed phrases and idioms can alter that.
However, this sort of construction can be awkward, and often recasting it will improve and clarify the sentence. This depends very ...
I am not at my best until lunch.
At one's most/least [adjective] is a fixed idiom; it may or may not be elliptical for at its most/least [adjective] state/condition/..., but those nouns would call for in rather than at. That is, we rarely say at a state or at a condition, we say in a state etc.
I think any of "inconsistent" "irregular", "variable", "varied", or "uneven" could work for this. I think you have been too ready to accept a single definition as barring a perfectly valid use of a word.
The choice of which term to use there is a matter of style and personal choice.
"Worker A had regular weekly earnings... " works fine. consistent or steady also can be used with the same meaning.
I think the problem lies in your research. You did the right thing, but unfortunately Google and Ngram do not always return the results you would expect. I've been chided here for quoting their statistics, so I don't rely on them any more.
Your example makes better use of "other":
Sorry, I just meant something I observe in other discussions, not in our past topics
But in other contexts, you can use other adjectives. See below:
In the different discussions that I had, I noticed...
During the various discussions in the past...
You may even use "elsewhere", but with a different word ...
Only a small difference. Consider using a simpler adjective and noun "red" and "cat".
Are both [of them] red cats?
This asks both about the colour and the species. The answer could be "No, they are red dogs" or "No, they are black cats". (or "Yes, they are")
Are both cats red?
This assumes they are cats, and asks only about the colour. The answer ...
Yes, both are grammatical. We are dealing with ellipsis.
Both examples are viable examples
can be made more compact without loss of sense by
Both examples are viable
Both are viable examples
The first form of ellipsis is turned into a question
Are both examples viable?
The second form is turned into a question
Are both viable ...
The question is grammatically correct, but the teacher would be more likely to say
Is anybody absent/away today?
The yes/no part of your proposed answers is not correct, though. If nobody is absent, the students would answer "no" to the teacher's question:
No miss, everyone is here today
There are additional problems with your answers when one or ...
The video seems to me to be poorly made, and I found several more strange errors over the course of a minute or two, so I think "more richer" is just a mistake. For example, here is the first sentence of the video, with errors marked:
Once there was a rich merchant,  he decided to load all his wealth into his two ships to  the  other lands to ...
You wouldn't typically do that with a single word adjective, but you would with an adjective phrase.
I met a girl cute as can be.
This is a book interesting to people who love computers, but no one else.
That dog with eyes black as coal is mine.
France is a country famous for its beautiful sights.
A person smarter than me needs to ...
Since whole modifies the noun week, it is an adjective (but see below about determiners). Here are other sentences with an adjective modifying week:
It rained all of last week except on Sunday.
It rained twice during that unpleasant week.
Adverbs modify anything other than a noun: a verb, an adjective, a preposition, another adverb, or a whole ...
It rained the whole(entire) week except on Sunday
In the sentence whole modifies week which is a noun. So it is a an Adjective. It is not an adverb.An adverb usually does not modify a noun or a pronoun.It may modify a noun phrase or sometimes a whole sentence.
In the cited context, even is an optional "intensifier" (in He got [even] richer, the implication is he was already quite rich before the later increase in wealth). But whether or not even is included doesn't affect the grammatical issue as regards how English expresses comparatives and superlatives.
Briefly, monosyllabic adjectives usually take the ...
"Yes miss, everyone is here today." or "No miss, everyone is not here today."
Both sentences above are answers to the question
"Is everyone present today?" or "Is everyone here today?"
They are not proper answers to the question
"Is any student absent today?"
To which, the appropriate answer would be
"Yes miss, Carla is absent. She is sick."