"Up" is a preposition, and "to" is a preposition.
But "up-to-date" is indeed an adjective. My dictionary lists it, as Gustavson says, with hyphens. However I don't think his suggestion for the adverbial "up to date" is very common.
The more usual word I have heard in American use for the phrase you want is "to date": "... in full settlement of your claims ...
It seems fine to me (native British English speaker).
I believe that "quite" meaning "somewhat" (which I think is the only reasonable reading of this) is mostly a British usage: American English prefers "quite" only in the sense of "very, completely".
In possible support of this, searching the GloWbE corpus for "quite a [adjective]" gives 4501 hits for ...
"He's quite a vulnerable boy" is perfectly fine, though it may strike some as a bit stilted. "He's a very vulnerable boy" means the same thing and will sound more natural to many native speakers.
Edit: Well, now that I've read Colin Fine's answer, I guess I should say "he's a very vulnerable boy" means the same thing as "he's quite a vulnerable boy" in ...
You're correct-- it is grammatical but not idiomatic in this context. You would more likely say "your job is easier than mine". Although maybe don't actually say that to someone unless you want to get punched. ;)
The original meaning of hardly was "in a hard manner" but it transformed into basically the opposite of that in Modern English. There's a good answer here by RegDwigнt on English StackExchange that links to the word's etymology on Etymonline:
c. 1200, "in a hard manner, with great exertion or effort," from Old English heardlice "sternly,...
Depending on the specific behaviours and the cultural context, a man could be described as being feminine as opposed to effeminate. Both are valid, but effeminate is more derogatory, suggesting that the speaker thinks his mannerisms are in some way inappropriate, offensive, affected, or possibly even insulting to women by performing an exaggerated caricature ...
One would be likely to say "John is suited to that job" or "That job is suited to John". (In either case "well-suited might be used instead". One might say or write:
I would really like to find something more suitable.
I would really like to find something more suited to me.
I would really like to find something better suited to me.
But I, at ...
There is also gender bender, a quite catchy term which seems to fit your examples shown. It implies a more conscious effort of the person thus described, perhaps even a level of activism or show, as opposed to the purely descriptive effeminate which can be entirely unconscious.
Since identity and in particular gender issues are "mined territory" Graham has ...
Another option is camp (adjective), meaning to behave in a way stereotypical of a gay man (in Western culture). This includes exaggerated feminine traits, but also some traits (mannerisms, walk, accent) unique to the gay male subculture.
Note that gay itself could be an option, if you genuinely think they are homosexual. However this has also been used as a ...
A less derogatory, more politically correct term, that no one has mentioned yet is: metrosexual. Although a metropolitan sexual describes a man who is just more particular about grooming and cleanliness.
(Google the old SNL skit "Sprockets" with Mike Myers for more information).
I am thinking of sissy (adj.), a pansy (n.), unmanly (adj, to describe one's behaviour). Keep in mind they all are derogatory.
In a modern and broad-minded society, having nails painted, or wearing a pink outlandish suit, or getting overly emotional doesn't necessarily describe a woman.
The English adjective to describe a man or boy whom the speaker/writer regards as exhibiting stereotypically or inappropriately feminine characteristics is "effeminate."
Please note that this word should be used with caution, if at all, as these days it is often seen as offensive. Also, please note that what specific characteristics are seen as "effeminate"...
Effeminate, an adjective that means "having feminine qualities untypical of a man; not manly in appearance or manner."
Nanigashi makes an excellent point about the cultural and temporal boundaries that limit the applicability of categorizing particular behaviors as feminine or masculine.
English (and I'm sure all languages) depends on your intent. Are you trying to identify a specific missing finger, or are you simply stating that one of the many fingers that you normally have is missing?
You have ten digits: eight fingers and two thumbs.
I am missing a finger.
I have a finger missing.
Both mean that one of the eight fingers you ...
It is present continuous used incorrect. It should be:
The lights on your computer are flashing.
because the "lights" are flashing, not the "computer".
From @JasonBassford in comments: More importantly, it's not being used as an adjective.
In this sentence, "sorry" is actually a quoted word, and it can be anything. I can even be an entire sentence.
Saying "Tomorrow will rain" will not make you smaller.
However, in different sentences, it is an adjective (possibly with the value of an adverb).
I am sorry.
The noun associated with "sorry" is most likely "apology".
Please accept my ...
"You have been dishonest to me." is in the present perfect tense, which is used to describe something that happened in the past, but the exact time it happened is not important. It has a relationship with the present. (ecenglish.com)
"You are dishonest to me." is in the present simple tense, which describes the current situation.
You can also use "have ...
As others have observed in comments, "the 'X'-er, the 'Y'-er" is a set phrase to be learned whole, rather than dissected and reasoned out in pieces (e.g.: what is the meaning of the "the" parts?)
However, I do think you can make some sense of it by considering the definite articles ("the") as naming a specific increment of increase in each of the adjectives ...
Because that is the form that such expressions take in English.
Somebody has commented, mentioning the idiomatic expression "the more, the merrier". But this is abbreviated. The structure normally has full clauses, as in:
The more he shouts at them, the more obstinate they will become.
"Why" questions about language hardly ever have answers other than "...
The examples you have given are all written in the simple present tense.
The types of English present tense and their uses are discussed in this article: https://magoosh.com/toefl/2014/the-four-present-tenses-and-their-ten-uses/
In particular, your examples are what the article describes as "General, timeless facts".
An idiomatic observation I can make is ...
The meaning is the same in both forms.
In both cases, the army / faith cannot be defeated.
To explain the second "form" more, if faith is defeated, the person either goes into a state of confusion / depression, or he finds faith in something else. If the faith is invincible, the faith remains there unchanged - ...
I think you might be referring to a:
1) Specialist - someone who limits his or her studying or work to a particular area of knowledge, and who is an expert in that area
2) Monomath - A person with an extensive knowledge of a single subject or field, but little knowledge of others.
Just a note that the 2nd word is not a common word.
Before can be used as an adjective, but its common use is as a conjunction ("A had achieved that before B did"). For this sentence, the emphasis can be achieved by using "way before B" or "long before B".
You may want to consider the following alternatives:
Person-2 has achieved this long ago (informal superlatives: long long ago, ages ago) - This is not a ...