The word closed is an adjective, describing the state of your nose after pinching. The structure is called resultative:
"In linguistics, a resultative (abbreviated RES) is a form that expresses that something or someone has undergone a change in state as the result of the completion of an event. Resultatives appear as ...
Namely is followed by something more specific or more precise than what came before. Presumably a Siberian husky isn't the only type of wolf-like dog, but even if it were, the species name would still be a more precise way of expressing what you were referring to.
John bought a wolf-like dog, namely a Siberian husky
is correct, but
John bought a ...
They don't mean quite the same thing.
"We don't often try to make this dish".
This means that our attempts to make this dish are infrequent, without any particular sentiment about that.
"We try not to make this dish often."
This means that we deliberately try not to make the dish frequently. That expresses a slight negative sentiment ...
To me, "enough" is less intense than "very". It means that a threshold is reached, but doesn't go beyond that. Here is a definition:
1 in or to a degree or quantity that satisfies or that is sufficient or necessary for satisfaction : sufficiently
2 fully, quite he is qualified enough for the ...
Despite their name, adverbs don't have to modify verbs; they can modify other parts of the sentence.
Lexico defines an adverb as follows:
A word or phrase that modifies or qualifies an adjective, verb, or other adverb or a word group, expressing a relation of place, time, circumstance, manner, cause, degree, etc.
You are correct about this sentence:
We don't know the style of these cheat sheets, but both comments could be understood to mean:
There *should be* no comma after "trained"
which, as I think you know, is debatable.
If the comments are simply intended to point out the absence of the second commas, it might have been clearer to say "Two commas" and "One comma", or &...
She is much liked by everybody.
The degree AdvP "much" indicates that "liked" is an adjective here. If it was a verb, the active counterpart would be the ungrammatical *"Everybody much likes her".
The clause does have a by phrase with "everybody", but such phrases are permitted in adjectival passives when the meaning ...
A 'participle' is a verb form that is nonfinite and an adjective or adverb. So, "liked" is certainly both a "participle verb form" and a "participle adjective" as well! Those can both be true, and are both true in this sentence.
"Liked" is /not/ a finite verb form here, and 'everybody' is not its subject!
This is a ...