"so" can indeed be used with either an adjective or an adverb to make it stronger. Your second sentence is grammatically correct. Your first sentence is wrong because you are using an adjective to describe the verb "stop". We stop suddenly (adverb), not sudden (adjective). You sing well (adverb), not good (adjective).
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In the phrase as little information as possible, the word little is a determiner that attaches to the noun information. It can't modify the adjective sensitive.
Oxford Dictionary little
[Determiner and Pronoun]
2. Used to emphasize how small an amount is.
[as determiner] I have little doubt of their identity
[definition edited for format]
Little has uses ...
If you want to specify the aperture or orifice through which leaking takes place, the preposition is through.
Fumes leaked through the crack in the pipe.
Water was leaking through a hole in the roof.
On the other hand if it's the agent or medium you're interested in, the preposition is from.
The gas had apparently leaked from a cylinder.
In the case of ...
The easy way to answer this is find out what currently means and substitute it in both sentences.
but at the present time our educational programme just overloads students
this meaning is obviously ambiguous, overloads what? the educational program or the student or both?
but our educational programme at the present time just overloads students
Once again, it is not all about the grammar.
in the next three weeks, in the coming three weeks, or in the following three weeks confusing.
Yes it is confusing because we have isolated these three phrases and we therefore have no information to support us as we try to understand the meaning of each. What is the context? what is the location? in your ...
In your first example, the tenses in the question and reply do not go together. You should ask
Where is she?
In terms of whether the magician exists, one can't conclude that definitively because the words maybe and perhaps attach a degree of uncertainty to the sentence. The reply poses a hypothetical scenario.
In your second example, your question should ...
Only the second sentence is correct. You can use an adverb after "so", and you must if the phrase is modifying the verb. The word "so" will have the same sense, indicating, more or less, to a previously indicated or implied degree.
If ... then ... is a standard construction. It does not assume the first part is true, and maybe she does not go to London. In this case I might not go (anywhere) with her.
Using "so" in this position assumes the first part is true. "She is going to London so I will also go along with her." The statement says three things - that she is ...
All of the question examples sound awkward.
What should we talk about America as for?
The expression "as for" doesn't mean what you think it does. It is a way of introducing the rest of the sentence, equivalent to "as to", "with regard to", or "concerning", or "on the subject of the economy". It doesn't have ...