There are a number of written instances of (someone) took transport to (some destination), where it's important to note there's no article. If you look at the dates in that link, you'll see most of them are quite old.
Also note that in such contexts, transport is effectively equivalent to transportation. It's more of an abstract than a concrete noun - ...
Be very leery about using the word only when giving rules about English.
you only use the proposition 'on' with nouns that refer to groups of people
The three example nouns you provided – team, board, commission – indeed typically use on instead of in. However, I thought of three other nouns (there are probably a few more) that can refer to ...
It is not a mistake to say "a subscription" but it is not normally what you mean.
The first example looks wrong to me. The word "subscription" should be used a countable noun, and so you need some article or determiner.
The second is correct. If a person had multiple subscriptions and the meaning was "you can cancel one of them". However this is ...
The verb leave can take a for phrase indicating the destination. This can be a real place:
They left for Venice.
I'm leaving for the coast tomorrow.
Or a notional place (like a job):
She left for a much better job.
But it can't be an -ing clause.
There's not really any reason for this (most -ing clauses don't make sense as destinations, but ...
Would you really leave your position to start your own business?
If we said "leave your job for another job", the other job is seen as a relatively static thing that already exists. You would be leaving your job for this thing. Starting your own business is an activity that you would be doing, so we would say, "to do", i.e. "to start your own business".
The awkwardness in the three sentences comes from starting with “Here”. One doesn’t say ici apparaît une question pertinente, one says a pertinent question arises here.
The quotes are not appropriate, unless you are actually quoting someone.
That said, more idiomatic verbs would be raise or give rise to:
These points give rise to the pertinent question, ...
You would "receive recognition" for something significant that you did, or something you did better than others. A recognition is close to an award. Lexico says
2.1 Appreciation or acclaim for an achievement, service, or ability.
his work was slow to gain recognition
she received the award in recognition of her human rights work
So I think it is ...
A pay-day loan is a loan until pay day. The idea being that you receive the money now to tide you over until your next pay cheque.
Google definitions defines this as:
a relatively small amount of money lent at a high rate of interest on the agreement that it will be repaid when the borrower receives their next wages.
This is correct usage of "as well as", but some parts of the sentence are a bit awkward.
You are using "just graduated from university" as an adjective, so it would need to be "just-graduated-from-university". Either way, it's awkward. Consider "I am a young, passionate developer who just graduated from university." In American English, it would be ...
What the answer is drawing on is possibly the notion of ordered conditionals 1, 2. The two of them never got married. The notion of their marriage is a hypothetical. This leads you to a so-called type 3 conditional and to the past perfect in the first part of the sentence (the conditional clause).
Had they got/gotten married ...
If they had got/...
I think the advice you received means to pick one accent to learn and use yourself when speaking. The point of this is to simplify your learning. If you have to learn two different ways of saying everything then it will take you a lot longer to reach proficiency. There are many other places where English is spoken with other accents as well (Australia, ...