It depends. Are you talking to your friends in a bar, riding a bus that just broke down, or sitting in a church?
As for comparing it to the base word, I would say it's a softer vulgarity. Still, it's a harsh word that I wouldn't want to use in front of my mother.
I regularly call my boyfriend ‘troublemaker’ because he is mischievous when he is being flirtatious. He causes me ‘trouble’ because he make me want to do things like continue talking to him more when I should be doing other things, like sleeping. It’s affectionate in that way.
If it’s a colleague, they are probably just trying to break the ice with you/ ...
within x number of hours is the deadline.
You leave at 6 p.m.
I say: Call me within 24 hours. [of that time]
That means: You have until the next day at the same time to call me.
It only includes the time after leaving.
Frankly, I see no ambiguity there at all.
If you are making the suggestion after dinner, Let's go for a walk is all you need.
Other ways of saying the same thing are: Shall we go for a walk? / Do you fancy a walk? / Do you feel like a walk?
If you have are making the suggestion either before or during dinner, you might say: Let's go for a walk after dinner.
Note Michael Harvey's comment above.
The em-dash can replace parenthesis, commas, and also colons. That said, you can simply replace the commas with the dashes. There is no need to add any word (in your example, 'after'). The non-restrictive clauses with double commas (example number -2) can be replaced by em-dashes.
Nevertheless, as FumbleFingers pointed out, the first example does not mean ...
I simply disagree with the video. The use of reflexive pronouns as intensifiers is certainly more common in informal English (including speech) because the informal tends to go in for a more dramatic tone than is normal for formal English. But it is still rare even in informal English.
I myself had breakfast at home this morning. In addition to orange ...
In American English, when we referring to the team, we treat it as a plural if the name we're referring to it by is in plural form, and as singular if the name we're using is in singular form. We also always use the word "the" as part of a team's name.
So, we would say
The Lakers are the best team this year.
Los Angeles is the best team this year.
The answers posted so far are great, but just to offer a succinct take, neither the headphones nor the iPhones are the owners of anything in this sentence; the girls are, and their ownership of the iPhones is implicit in the possessive pronoun "their".
I would have said that it isn't a word, but a non-lexical sound - a vocal sound that people make and the meaning is recognisable.
Having said that, I was surprised to find it is in the dictionary!
"used to express a contemptuous or dismissive attitude".