34

There's no rule that utterances have to be complete sentences. What they have to do is communicate. Alice: How did you escape? Bob: I escaped with difficulty. Bob doesn't need to say I escaped here. Alice already knows she's asking about how Bob escaped. It's obvious from context. But what about this conversation? Alice: Hello! Bob: #With ...


24

There are a few things I would like you to take note of: Read: Don't stop reading. Try reading aloud and attentively. Try to listen to your own reading. The more you read, the more your ears get accustomed to normal English constructs. Write: The more you write, the easier it is for you to remember new words, grammar usage etc. Practice of writing would ...


23

It means that, where you once had a dollar, you are now without a dollar. "Out" here is used in the same way as "paid out" or "laid out" or even "without" implies that something you once had, or might have been expected to have, is not in your possession any more. There is an added implication, if you use the phrase this way, that you have received nothing ...


23

The author is simply making a joke; the image is of Maurice rushing from computer to computer, knocking people down (perhaps unintentionally) because he's moving impossibly fast and is on an impossibly tight schedule. Since Maurice is a fictional character, and not at all intended to be realistic — what he's doing is clearly impossible — I think ...


22

This is conventionally called ellipsis, the supposed "omission" of words which are not necessary to understand the semantic and syntactic meaning of an utterance. I put omission in quotation marks because nothing is in fact omitted unless you hold to the theory that only utterances which constitute a full sentence are acceptable, coherent, and meaningful. ...


21

The songwriter is mixing mausoleum and prison metaphors. The "glass coffins" are the cases in which the (presumably) priceless violins are stored and (presumably) never played. The "living dead" are the instruments which should be played, but instead are kept on display, never making music. Combined that with the prison image of "lights out" (time for ...


19

The term his junior (or her junior) is a term that relates one person's age to the others. Junior in general means: younger in age In your example: Ukrainian model 30 years his junior It does not mean that she's 30 years old. It means that she's 30 years younger than he is. So, if he's 50 years old and she's 30 years his junior, that means that ...


19

Take [a tool] to [an object] means to use that tool on the object, especially in a reckless or destructive way. There's also a related expression take to [an object] with [a tool]. In 1989, after misleading reports from a DDR bureaucrat, frustrated Berliners took a sledgehammer to the wall separating them from the West. Hurrying to lay in fuel for the ...


18

Syntactically, the two phrases modify experts; semantically, they define the conditions under which James thought that experts should be granted authority. The experts should be well organized. The experts should be well led. The experts should have sufficient resources to resolve the problems.


17

The idiom is actually "Be the X" or "Be X." "Be the pie" in the sentence you quoted is just the idiom as applied to that one situation. It's half-joke, half-serious. The idiom is a parody of various schools of performance that encourage the student to abandon conscious control or preconceptions and pay attention to the task in a Zen-like manner. For example,...


17

In the context of that quote, air has the meaning of: 2. an impression of a quality or manner given by someone or something So we could rephrase "...he said with a resigned air" as "...he said in a resigned manner." In other words, the speaker says, "We, the Moldovans have always been... It's our fate," in a way that indicates his feeling/attitude ...


17

It means they won't be working, but they'll still be paid their salary. The reason for suspending them with pay is because if they're guilty, they shouldn't be acting as police officers whilst the investigation continues. On the other hand, if they're innocent they shouldn't be punished by having their salary withheld.


17

The normal way to write that is with a hyphen: vice-like grip See the definition of -like in the ODO. Literally, a vice-like grip would be a grip like that of a vise/vice, which is a mechanical device for holding things in place. Thus, a very strong grip. In this context, it's not his handshake we're talking about, but grip in the sense of political ...


17

I think there are two things that are confusing you here. It's a long sentence, and the logic is convoluted. The first is the "arguing for the authority of experts" part. James had been a high priest of technology, and one of the things he did was argue for the authority of experts... That makes sense, right? One of the things that a 'high priest of ...


16

Be the pie is idiomatic, and means to become like the pie by entering the same state as it. If one is as the pie is, then concentration and baking skill will improve, by virtue of understanding, from the pie's perspective, the necessary qualities and processes for being delicious, as well as forgetting about all of the other things which commonly distract or ...


15

You are misunderstanding the first part: Screwtape does not say that the Enemy will be more "defensive" but that the struggle will be carried on "terrain" where the Enemy is stronger. God (says Screwtape) has the advantage in rational argument. But in "practical propaganda"—that is, appealing to irrational motives —God is inferior to the Devil. "...


13

I need to be the pie, in other words, I need to imagine that I am the pie. I need to look at things from the pie's perspective – Am I sweet enough? Do I need more sugar? It sounds like a very Zen approach to cooking.


13

Here's an example of the type of computer this is probably talking about: As you can see, the computer inputs are a series of toggle switches. So, while we now "type in" information, at that point, you'd have to "toggle in" information.


12

It isn't an idiom per se, it is simply a comment that is not meant literally. Maurice was in a rush for the bus, as he spent too much time completing his other tasks. He probably didn't actually knock anybody down, but it conjures up a mental image of people being accidentally knocked in all directions as he runs through the crowd. Edit: As @jwodder ...


10

I don't think "thank you very much" is a cliché. You could use it to express polite gratitude in a formal setting and as long as your tone was sincere, nobody would mind. Alternatives: I appreciate your help. Thank you. That's very kind of you. Thank you (for your time). I'm very grateful (for your kindness). In most situations, a good way to show ...


10

Slow down. Speaking is a skill, like playing guitar. It's made up of a bunch of smaller skills, including: Physical skills, like pronouncing a particular sound, or transitioning between two sounds; as well as Mental/memory skills, like remembering how to use a particular grammar pattern, or remembering what the word for rollercoaster is. The more you ...


10

Fragments bad? Why no. Fragments good? Sometimes. When fragments good? Emphasis. Sense of speed. Rhetorical impact. Sense of action. Rapid response. When fragments bad? Too much. Not enough detail. Too many. Tired reader. I'd add also that the most common cause of people revising both fragments and misdiagnosed fragments—both when they needed such ...


10

The "cut" of a garment is its shape, conferred upon it by the shapes into which the fabric is cut by the tailor. (Note, by the way, that tailor is originally French tailleur—literally, "cutter".) An improbable "cut" is one which is so extravagant or outré that it defies tailoring convention.


10

If written out in full, the title might be When is a virtual function not [a virtual function]. If a part of a sentence is repeated later in the sentence, it can be omitted, as long as the meaning is still clear. This is called ellipsis or deletion. Ellipsis can only be effective if the listener or reader can easily tell what has been omitted. For ...


9

The authors refer to the decade that passed between the first and the second editions. My understanding of "With a decade more experience, we still..." is "As our experience has grown by a decade, we still..." A simpler expression would be "With more experience (that we've accumulated), we still...", and to quantify the 'more' they provide "a decade". ...


9

taking a screwdriver to (something) is an expression used when a person without necessary skills tries to fix something (as the example says). One example would be to refer to someone trying to fix their washing machine or TV set. The TV stopped working. I'll take a screwdriver to it (the TV or "part"). "screwdriver" is used since it is a generic tool ...


9

It seems that 500 refers to the number of Russian troops. Said that, earlier, they had modular housing to occupy 1500 troops. But in just a matter of hours, Russia sent housing having more capacity. Of course, along with all other arms mentioned.


9

Being honest, I as a native speaker (seriously) rarely understand more than 50% of the lyrics the first time I listen to a song. What's more, I don't understand more than 80% of the lyrics of even my favorite songs (after listening over and over) unless I look up the lyrics (check genius or songmeanings for generally excellent sources). Again, I'm a native ...


9

A student is someone who studies something. Now, usually, we think of students as being taught things by professors, but actually, anyone who does research can be called a student, in the sense that they make a study of a subject. People that study the mind can be people that do research into how the brain functions, they can be psychologists, psychiatrists,...


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