If he had time, he would have called in to see us.
This implies a hypothetical, that he "would have" called in, which suggests that he in fact didn't call in, and also suggests that this was because he didn't have time.
It would more correctly be written as:
If he'd had time, he would have called in to see us.
"He'd" meaning "he had".
What you need here is called the subjunctive mood and the conditional.
First, you are expressing a hypothetical, so you should use the conditional form "would" instead of "will".
Second, you have an error previously in your second sentence by using the word "am" in "If I am", it should be if I were, this is called the subjunctive mood, which is used when ...
If you were to substitute will here, you would change the meaning of your question to involve the future. Your question becomes one of determining the fact at some unknown future time.
A more standard way of phrasing in the present tense would be either
Am I crazy? If I were, would I realize it?
or more colloquially
Am I crazy? If I were, how ...
So Jem was a gentleman, until he wasn't.
Here are some definitions:
what made him break ... the phase of self-conscious rectitude he had recently entered.
"Rectitude" means "honesty and correct moral behaviour" (Cambridge).
... I’d do as a matter of course ...
"If something is done 'as a matter of course', it is a usual part of the way in which ...
Here this refers to a more general sense of one's character, one's sense of "who I am", in a way that transcends time/place/situation. The "and therefore would have done at the time" is therefore implied, though not stated.