27

In formal English, adding the hyphen to log in makes your sample sentence grammatically incorrect. The hyphen has the effect of turning the phrasal verb into an adjective or a noun. For example, these sentences are valid: Click here to go to the log-in page. Upon successful log-in, you will be redirected to the subscription page. This rule mostly ...


15

From my personal experience, Oxford Dictionaries has became my "first reference" - Wiktionary may have most words, but their entry quality often varies a lot, and many have very limited range of listed meanings. Meanwhile, Oxford Dictionaries seems to go for depth instead of breadth; each entry delves into a large number of meanings - I had quite a few ...


14

sb is an abbreviation for somebody. sth is an abbreviation for something. The sentence means tell somebody to do something. In real life, any person and any thing can be included in the sentence, for example, tell [your student] to [complete their homework]. A dictionary should explain this. Can you use these words in your essays? No. They are not real ...


14

Being an administrator on Wiktionary, my answer may be slightly biased. 1) Wiktionary is a multilingual dictionary and each Wiktionary site attempts to translate words from all known languages into one single language (e.g., en.wikt for all languages into English). This is one advantage over OED or Webster. 2) Wiktionary (or volunteers who work on the ...


12

The construction The reason is because X has been upsetting pedants for about four generations now. Don't worry about it: it is a fixed phrase and beyond grammatical niggling. Millions of people use it every day, in every register, and writers of the very first rank have used it for at least four hundred years. If you want a reasoned discussion from a ...


12

Dictionaries traditionally use a lot of abbreviations. This is because, like everything else, they used to just be printed volumes, not online resources, and they were trying to cram as much information into a small a space as possible. Thus, they developed abbreviations for parts of speech, like v. for verb, for characteristics of different words, like ...


11

You should be aware that Collins is not an entirely reliable authority for American pronunciation.† I can't find any statement on the Collins site detailing their approach to phonetic representation, and there's a lot of wiggle room in 'broad' transcriptions representing phonology; but I think this particular representation is flat wrong. In my ...


11

When I want to know what modern people use, I do Google searches, including News searches and Books searches. When I want to know what people who like to edit dictionaries as a hobby think, I use Wiktionary. When I want to know what a respected British dictionary has to say, I consult my OED Microprint. When I want to know what a respected American ...


7

Trust No One (1). It's the only scientific approach. There's no silver bullet. Dictionaries are written by people. People make mistakes; As a language learner, it is well possible that you simply misunderstand the meaning they wanted to convey; Languages evolve. What was correct yesterday is not necessarily correct today. Remember, five years ago it was ...


6

No, there is not a “standard dictionary”, and there cannot be. No dictionary “defines” conclusively what a word “means” or how it may be used. At most, it provides a list of approximate paraphrases reflecting how it is used in various contexts. Those paraphrases are not in any sense official: they are attempts at an explanation by expert editors, just like ...


6

OP misunderstands the relevant meaning of... simple - not ornate or luxurious; unadorned: a simple gown. ...and/or... severe - rigidly restrained in style, taste, manner, etc.; simple, plain, or austere. The fact that both these words have other meaning and connotations is beside the point. But it's worth noting that stark (which ultimately derives ...


6

Here is the list: http://www.wordfrequency.info/free.asp?s=y it includes all of the 1000 words, except with 4000 more. You can ignore the extra 4000 if you want. Hope this helps!!


6

There are dictionaries of English roots, but I cannot find one which confines itself to Old English (‘Anglo-Saxon’, we used to call it) roots. There's a list on Wikipedia of English words of Anglo-Saxon origin. In any case, I'm afraid a list of English ‘roots’ would be of very little use to you. First, while it is true that many ...


5

There is nothing particularly wrong with this word. Dictionary.com, Websters, Google, and Oxford Dictionaries all list "fixate". As to OLD - I sent an Email to their contact address to inquire as to this discrepancy. Here is an excerpt from the reply: This is simply a matter of frequency. The adjective fixated is found much more frequently in our ...


4

This may help you,taken from Vocabulary.com *"The adjective earthy runs the gamut from "crunchy" to "crude." You could use earthy to describe bohemian fashion or a vulgar comedian. Just don't use it to describe our planet." You could use it in a more literal way, like the "earthy smell" coming from the vegetable garden. Or, you could use it in a more ...


4

Yes. It is a word. However, it is seldom used. I would avoid it and use "worthy" instead.


4

To in this case is not the preposition but the infinitive marker. It is attached to the infinitive form (the bare infinitive) in 'abstract' contexts like this and in a variety of actual syntactical constructions to make clear that it is the infinitive which is intended. This is necessary because the infinitive of almost every English verb has exactly the ...


4

There's a guide to AHD symbols online: http://www.ahdictionary.com/application/resources/misc/pronkey.pdf Most Americans can't read IPA. In grade school, I was taught symbols similar to those used by the AHD, and I didn't encounter the IPA until I was an adult.


4

The sentence is absolutely fine. The pronoun his in there is a possessive pronoun and it refers to the account that belongs to the guy they're talking about. It's basically short for his account. So, they actually could just as easily have said the following and there would have been no semantic difference whatsoever: He was there and saw what happened, ...


3

You cannot analyze a sentence in a natural language — any natural language — by syntactic substitution and rearrangement, the way you are trying to do. Natural languages do not work that way. Your "3 => 4 => 5" is not even wrong. You are also proceeding from an incorrect assumption: the phrase "The reason is because" is not redundant. It can be shortened ...


3

I cannot speak for all dictionaries, but the phrases the dictionary gave you don't necessarily start a sentence, so sentence caps are unnecessary. As JR said, the dictionary is showing an example usage, not an example sentence. e.g. The fire lasted for four days; the forest fire was exacerbated by the lack of rain.


3

In the first place, as stangdon says in the Comments, dictionaries cannot possibly catalog every conceivable or even every common use of a word. A dictionary will ordinarily only define those uses which are peculiar to the word, such as prepositions 'selected' by that word to signify particular semantic relationships. The use of to to indicate someone toward ...


3

These book have given one or two meaning. But when I have searched those words in dictionary, I have found many meanings rather than the meaning they have listed. If a word has fewer meanings in the exam book than it has in the dictionary, then I'd assume the meanings listed in the exam book are the ones most likely to be used on the test. One word has ...


3

I do not have printed (paper) dictionaries, so I use the on-line versions of the dictionaries. sb in the Cambridge Dictionary: sb = written abbreviation for somebody or someone sth in the Cambridge Dictionary sth = written abbreviation for something Of course, several words / expressions can be abbreviated as sb or sth. E.g.: Sb = stibium (...


3

"to put" is the infinitive form and is often used in dictionary definitions of verbs.


3

There is no need for a local English-English dictionary, if you're talking about a dictionary where the words are in (say) Australian English and the definitions are in (say) American English. The different varieties of English are similar enough that if one wants to read an Australian dictionary (these do exist) to figure out what some piece of Australian ...


3

Make "something" up is almost always the second definition. Make [something] up is the first. I was late for work. I will make something up tomorrow. Make up means invent. You are planning on inventing a lie. In this usage you might be making up something, a story, a lie, an excuse, a bunch of nonsense, etc. ) I was late for work. I will make hours ...


3

It refers back to the section Forms The word unless has a rather complex history as a word. In Middle English there are various expressions of lesse, of lasse, *on lesse" "not upon lesse thann" and so on. The OED calls these different spellings of unless "forms" and enumerates them by Greek letters. It describes the origin of each "form". Click on the "... ...


3

This is obviously where experience and knowledge starts to really help! One practical way that even native speakers are advised to use to get that knowledge is a decent thesaurus, and then under synonyms or antonyms there should be some useful alternatives - including phrasal verbs. Here is thesaurus.com I have put in 'separate' already. Notice the tabs ...


2

'Formality' is, by definition, inextricably linked to the expected convention or etiquette of the people you are addressing, so without knowing ahead of time who the intended audience is, there's no way of saying for certain whether something is 'formal' for the circumstances. It is, after all, relative, as something that is extremely formal in one setting ...


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