Peel means to remove the surface or skin of something. An orange is peeled, or your skin can be peeling.
Chip means for a small area or volume of something to break off.
Something that is chipped will always be solid/hard.
Peeling can apply to something solid/hard like dried paint, or soft like skin.
"Topic" and "subject" are fairly close, though "subject" is broader. It might apply to a whole semester of material. "Issue" is much narrower, and refers to something that is controversial. Don't use "issue" in that context unless there is some debate about it. The best fit for your context is "topic".
When the teacher is in the classroom, the student would say "Teacher may I come in" because the word 'come' implies the direction toward whom the speaker is speaking to. And, in the other case, when both the teacher and the student are outside, the student should ask "Teacher, may I go in?" because 'go' implies movement away from the speaker
or the person ...
The meaning of the two is often similar, but sometimes not. It depends a lot on context.
In a situation where somebody is in a position of power over someone else (for example, in a work setting, where a boss is telling one of his subordinates to do something), they can often be used interchangeably, because they can both be taken to mean to make someone ...
Both are grammatically correct. And they mean the same thing.
"There are not people like you at my school" might be considered a little awkward. I'd probably say "There are no people like you at my school", or "There are not any ..." like your example. But it's correct as is and would not confuse anyone.
Side note: In your "bread" example, "bread" is a ...
Both work the same, but option 2 sounds much more natural. Option 1 makes you sound like a robot, so I would recommend avoiding it.
(This response is specific to American dialect, so it may or may not apply to you.)
A beam of light is like the output of a car's headlight, a torch (flashlight) or a searchlight, and can be quite wide.
A ray of light is a thin line, such as the first flash of light at dawn, or in a scientific experiment with prisms, or a mathematical theoretical item (the linear equivalent of a point).
A streak of light suggests motion, such as the trace ...
I agree with the other answer saying that in the case of drawing back his hand, the use of draw implies less effort than would pull. But this is very context dependent, and I think in your other example, using draw implies effort.
By the way I can 't find a suitable translation for 'power of drawing out the social side'. What does it mean?
Here, power ...
'draw' implies action with little or no resistance.
'pull' is to apply force (toward ones' self), implying it takes effort.
Similar in meaning. The context in which they are used together would define the difference.
"You can draw your own conclusions here, if you can manage to pull the notion of their complexity from your thoughts"
To get someone do something suggests that you talked to the person and convinced or persuade them to do something - this structure has a similar meaning to get something done.
finally I got my dad to change his old car.
have someone do something, on the other hand, suggests that you arranged for the person to do something or caused them to do something, ...
Which color is this?
There's a list of colors, or only so many possible colors. You only want one of those colors in the list/that is possible.
You might not be aware of the list/which are possible, so if someone asks you this unexpectedly, it's OK for you ask "What possible colors are there?"
What color is this?
There's no list, so you're not ...
You can say "How much is it?" about something that has already been mentioned, example:
I like that hat. How much is it?.
You can say "How much is that?" or "How much does that item cost?" about something that you indicate (possibly by pointing at it). "How much is it/that?" and "How much does it/that cost?" are ways of saying the same thing.
"My PC needs repairing." can be used. It sounds a bit informal. You could also say "My PC needs repair."
Those could be used whether you will have someone else do the repair, or do it yourself.
I have to get my PC repaired." is also usable. The focus there is on your need rather than the computer's need, and "get my PC repaired" means you will have ...
I think your understanding is reasonably close to correct, but it may be stated in a slightly more complicated way than is necessary. I would summarize the difference between these two tenses (in general) as:
Simple Past Tense
The simple past is the most neutral form. It just says that something occurred in the past, and doesn't say anything else (about ...
What should I do?
This is asking "what is the correct or best thing to do?". It doesn't say anything about what actually will happen, just asks what would be the right thing in this situation (but it often implies that once you figure out the right thing, you will probably also then go ahead and do it):
I want to go to my friend's party, but I also told ...
"What should I do?" - Asking someone "what do you think is the best thing for me to do?"
"What am I going to do?" - Asking yourself what to do. Usually not a real question, but a way of expressing that you're upset about an impossible situation. For example, "If I run, the wolves will eat me. If I don't run, the zombies will eat me. What am I going to do?"
"You can go first."
The word can implies that you are giving the person the option to do or not do a certain action.
"You go first."
Removing it implies that you are giving order or forcing someone to do something. You are not giving that person the choice of not doing it.
The fact of the matter is that native speakers use "be going to" and "present continuous" to refer to future actions, events and states much more often than "will". English learners usually overuse"will". This can be easily confirmed by a quick search in any English corpus.
with that out of the way, let's get to answering the question:
The modal auxiliary ...
The distinction is not between independent and dependent clauses, it's between restrictive and non-restrictive clauses. I didn't go through all of your links, but that is what your first link said. All of your examples are restrictive clauses, and so should be "that".
This rule is, as you note, far from universally observed. There are differing views on ...
This is one of those occasional cases where there is a rule on the books which is almost never actually observed or enforced in practice.
Technically, according to proper English grammar rules, you are correct: "which" is used to introduce independent clauses (which only provide additional side-information), while you should use "that" for dependent ...
You can use 2 only if you specify a duration. If you use it as written, it would refer to some period or periods in the past, probably not including the present.
Examples with duration:
I have lived in London since 2005. I have lived in London for years.
Examples without duration: Have you ever lived in London? Yes, I have lived in London. I have lived in ...
Until and unless can be used in many of the same places, but they have slightly different meanings.
Until refers to the time that something happens, and may be used to imply a chain of cause-and effect.
I won't make any money until I get a job. ➔ I will make some money when I get a job.
She didn't return until last week.
I'm not going to ...
I think most English speakers are not necessarily knowledgeable enough about trees to be able to tell the difference between pines, spruces, or firs on sight, so in general people don't make that sort of distinction unless it's actually relevant to the conversation. When in doubt, most people will use "pine" as a generic term for most small/medium conifers, ...
I think both forms are used.
Definition of come down from
1: to move or fall downward from (somewhere or something):
I'd like you to come down from that ledge before you fall down.
2: to be passed on from (a former time):
This is a story that has come down from ancient times.
3: informal : to stop feeling the effect of (an illegal drug): to stop ...
The "from" is implying a source of the movement. The "coming" is indicating a destination.
"Coming down a mountain" means that the person is on the mountain, moving downwards, and coming towards some implied destination.
"Coming down from a mountain" means the person is on the mountain, moving downwards, and moving away from presumably the pinnacle.
It is possible that "look through the window" could mean from the outside looking in.
John stood outside the house, looking through the window at the people partying inside.
But in the context you give, the meaning is almost the same. I wouldn't use "from the window" unless you were saying "Looking from a 10th-floor window", which is really about "from ...