There's no rule that utterances have to be complete sentences. What they have to do is communicate.
Alice: How did you escape?
Bob: I escaped with difficulty.
Bob doesn't need to say I escaped here. Alice already knows she's asking about how Bob escaped. It's obvious from context.
But what about this conversation?
Bob: #With ...
This is conventionally called ellipsis, the supposed "omission" of words which are not necessary to understand the semantic and syntactic meaning of an utterance.
I put omission in quotation marks because nothing is in fact omitted unless you hold to the theory that only utterances which constitute a full sentence are acceptable, coherent, and meaningful. ...
They are not quite the same, but they are similar.
Two-year-old is an adjective. You can say, two-year-old girl, or two-year-old cat, or two-year-old child. Sometimes, two-year-old is used as a noun on its own, and it that case ("My two-year-old", say), child is usually implied, although it could refer to an animal if the context is clear. It's a compound ...
When fragments good?
Emphasis. Sense of speed. Rhetorical impact. Sense of action. Rapid response.
When fragments bad?
Too much. Not enough detail. Too many. Tired reader.
I'd add also that the most common cause of people revising both fragments and misdiagnosed fragments—both when they needed such ...
I thought that the subject is that which acts, and the object is that which is acted upon.
This is often true in an active-voice sentence, but not in a passive-voice sentence.
That which acts/is acted upon and subject/object really describe two different categories, not a single category.
That which acts and that which is acted upon are semantic roles, ...
The two are often interchangeable, but they can carry a wide range of meaning.
On the informal side, this "question" might actually be more of a greeting than a question. For example, I might pass a co-worker in the hallway, and say, "How're you doing?" and expect not much more than a nod in return, or maybe a quick "Fine, how are you?" In the latter case, ...
She may [ like it ].
Traditionally "may like" has been taken as a constituent (and commonly called 'the verb’). There was a lot of argument about this in the 70s, and many have come round to the view that the auxiliary verbs are special cases of catenative verbs. This is discussed at considerable length in CGEL (pp. 1209-1220, see tree on p1218).
Thus the ...
A CaGEL analysis would be like this:
She [C] may [P] like it [C]
Or to make it clearer:
like it [C]
Of course, the last Complement, like it, is itself a clause with its own internal structure. The structure is:
It is interesting to note that, from what we can see of the OP's excerpts, CaGEL have missed out the function ...
Some adjectives can only be used to modify nouns, for example the adjective indoor. We can talk about:
indoor swimming pools
But we don't usually say:
*The pool was indoor (not good)
We call adjectives that appear before nouns attributive adjectives. The adjective indoor is called an attributive only adjective.
Other adjectives can't usually be used ...
Whether this a noun phrase or not, depends on your grammar. However, the more important point is: Can we use "For someone to do something" as the Complement of a verb (or indeed as the Subject of a clause)?
The answer is like this:
We can use to-infinitivals without the word for:
To err is human.
The best thing would be to give the elephant a bun.
The "a" goes with "mere", not with "three years" (and yes, it's grammatical).
You could replace "a mere" with "only" or "just":
The Supreme Court overruled this decision just three years later.
When used with small quantities, the indefinite article is often coupled with mere. Oxford Learner's Dictionary lists several examples:
It took her a ...
In your expression
I'm happy I helped
gets used when talking to a third person
I'm happy I helped David get into college.
I'm happy I helped them find a new home.
The usual expression
( I'm ) happy to help
can be used for both the past and the future depending on context
P1: Thanks for your help.
P2: Not a problem, always happy to help. ...
Not too much difference these sentences have; but if we dig deeper, we find a hairline difference between them. Said that, the context matters!
How are you? -typically asks the condition of yours
On the other hand,
How are you doing? -typically asks the performance/fortune of yours.
Consider the replies...
How are you? ~ I'm fine. Thanks.
The best approach to address this issue is for the government to introduce green taxes.
There is nothing wrong with the structure presented by the OP, but the sentence formed by him isn't according to the structure. It should be:
The best approach for the government to address this issue is to introduce green taxes.
Alternatively, I think, you can say:
I've read his book.
Here, "I" is a subject and "his book" is an object.
The author whose book I've read is going to be in my town.
Same thing. "I" remains a subject. "Whose book" remains an object. That object includes a relative genitive pronoun, which gives us reason to bring that phrase to the beginning of its clause. ...
If you intended to put these in a sentence, with the word function:
the job that something is designed to do
The function of advertising is to create a unique image for your company.
In your example:
The function of this mini dialogue is to ask and answer questions.
This Ngram shows that the most common word after "function is" is "to" - which ...
I = main subject.
let = main verb.
him = direct object of let, and subject of take.
take = subordinate verb. It's infinitive because its subject is a direct object.
the pen = direct object of subordinate verb.
I've heard congratulations used in birthday greetings, or in wishing someone a happy new year, but it's generally intended to be somewhat humorous.
When I've heard it used, the implication has been: Congratulations! You made it through another year. Put another way: It's been a whole year and you're still alive. Congratulations.
Some might consider such "...
It was love at first sight, at least for the wide-eyed young teen Elizabeth.
It was love at first sight. It was at least love at first sight for the wide-eyed young teen Elizabeth.
The words "at least for" shouldn't be considered under any single syntactical feature. They don't count as a coherent unit.
What do count as ...
As BillJ said, it's essential that you know the difference between syntactic categories and grammatical functions.
A syntactic category is merely the class of the expression. At high speed and in the shop are both prepositional phrases because they are headed by prepositions, which are at and in, respectively. They are clearly not adjective phrases because ...
Rice is being cooked (by Mary).
The right way to do this is by first eliminating the prepositional phrase which would be the "by Mary". Mary would be the object of the prep and not the subject. So by taking this out, you would be left with "Rice is being cooked". From here you can easily see what the subject is, rice. This is because Rice is doing the ...
I'm happy to help.
although worded using the present conjugation of "to be", is referring to something you haven't done yet because you have not yet helped: it's the same thing as saying
I will be happy to help you in the immediate future.
Note that this use is likely a casualty of dialect as it's technically ungrammatical and should really be something ...
The best thing to do for our planet is to tackling globe warm
The best thing to do for our planet is that we all save energy.
Yes, the structure you stated is fine, but your example is somewhat not following your structure.
While "two-year-old" and "two years old" are similar, there is a distinct difference beyond the "s" in that the first is an identifying number or categorizing using numbers and the other is about ordering or measuring.
The distinction is similar to being numbered as a runner versus placing in a race. The placing of runners as they finish a race is an order, ...
Like Andrew said, the parts of speech are all the different types of words: nouns, verbs, etc. Towson University has a decent, if somewhat old, guide online for English. The guide goes into the different roles and functions each part of speech can have in a sentence.
Other languages have other elements, such as particles or tones, that English does not have....