Although "bent" is the past tense of "bend", it can also be an adjective because it describes a static position. If you bend (verb) a piece of metal, then it is bent (adjective). It can also be a verb, for example "I have bent the metal".
If you spend the day "bending over" that would mean that you were constantly bending, then standing up straight, then ...
You can think of a gerund as a noun
for example : "explaining" can be used to mean "explanation"
To + gerund
The gerund here is used to indicate the state of something .
In this case , you can look at what follows the preposition (to) as one block .
I went from waking up late to waking up early .
(I went from the state of walking up late to ...
Preventing ... territorial is a participial clause modifying treaty. It is introduced by the participle preventing.
I ignore the question of territorial which you make clear that you understand is wrong. But what's probably confusing the other answerers is that you didn't say that the problem was identifying the error.
As “Words Like Jared” explains, “territorial” is wrong; that is the answer to the question. However, “preventing” is also wrong. The correct word is “prohibiting” (and delete “from”). If the whites comply with [obey] the treaty, then they will not travel as described… but neither the treaty itself, nor the writing in it, actually prevents them from doing ...
Number 1 is "kind of" correct.
Number 2 is grammatically correct.
Number 3 is absolutely false.
it's grammatical to use simple form of the verb or the ing form of the verb after "rather than" -it's ungrammatical to use an infinitive (to+verb) after it.
so with that in mind, number 3 is definitely incorrect and ...
Funding is the word we use for the process of raising money from investors or institutions.
So the writer is saying that it was difficult to persuade people/institutions to provide the money that was needed for one or other project.
Funds, plural, signifies the money that it raised, whether for a single purpose or for multiple purposes.
Thus, it would ...
 Why don’t you let your children try to make their own
 Why don’t you let your children try making their own
There's a difference.
In  "try" means "endeavour", while in  it means "test the effectiveness of".
Both forms are possible, depending on the intended meaning.
Winning is not everything. (does "win" work?)
Yes, but as a verb it would need to be in the to-infinitive form: "To win is not everything". It sounds very formal, but sayings like this often are - for example "to know is to understand". As a noun it would be "a win is not everything".
Please return it after use. (does "using" work?)
All are acceptable. They simply treat "travel" as a different type of thing.
I like travel.
This is treating "travel" as a noun. It's a thing you like. Some might say things about "nounifying." But I'm not particularly worried, at least in this case.
In particular, "travel" is used here as a mass or uncountable noun. You get some travel, not one ...
-ing words are used to form progressive or continuous constructions if paired with a form of to be:
was walking, am moving, were going, had been flying
Adverbs can come between to be and the -ing word, like not, maybe, now, etc.
Does this mean the -ing word is technically a gerund? After all, you can replace the walking in I was walking, for example, ...