It's a "first conditional", which is about something that could happen or not. That's called an open conditional.
For the moment, let's set it in the present:
"If the negotiations fail, there will be no great delay in following."
This represents what the Persians are thinking about negotiations.
Now, we have to set that conditional ...
The first two uses of on are grammatical, but very strange. They also don't mean what you think they mean:
I forbid smoking on you.→ I forbid anybody from smoking on top of you.
Smoking is forbidden on you.→ Nobody is allowed to smoke on top of you.
The third sentence is simply ungrammatical when used with on.
More natural phrasing for each of the ...
"As I said before" is correct, because you are emphasizing or restating that you have already said something, and there is no need to place a noun after "said." "As I told before" is not quite correct, because it raises the question "who have you told before?" "Told" must be followed with an object (noun), ...
Use "said" here. "Told" sounds very awkward. It is usually used with an indirect object: "As I told you before..." or with certain other forms like "He told of his adventure" (old fashioned). "Said" needs a preposition to take another object: "As I said to you before..."
Regarding the usage of to:
2 b —used as a function word to indicate the result of an action or a process
// broken all to pieces
// go to seed
// to their surprise, the train left on time
2.2 Governing a phrase expressing someone's reaction to something.
‘to her astonishment, he smiled’
‘Much to his surprise, this small ...
"In a way that caused him to feel despair." The friend's going back on his word is the reason for his despair, and so (by definition) it contributes much to that feeling.
Much to his surprise and much to his dismay are also common variations on the same formula, as well as their plainer versions without "much": to his surprise and to his ...
The phrase "much to his despair" is a variation of the phrase "be the despair of". This sentence is saying that because this person's friend went back on his word (going back on your word is when you break a promise or you fail to uphold a commitment you made), it caused this person's friend despair. In this sentence, "despair" ...
I agree with Ronald Sole's answer, but I have something to add:
Come up to the third floor.
This is fine.
Which floor is it on?
This is fine.
Which floor do I come?
You could say which floor do I come to? or, if you're feeling pedantic or snooty, to which floor do I come? But I would more likely say which floor is it on?
I was in a hotel and my room ...
Come up to the third floor is fine.
So is Can we get a top floor room?
And which floor is it on?
But you need to add to to: Which floor do I come to?
It's worth bearing in mind that Brits (and some "ex-colonials") call the bottom floor of a building the ground floor while North Americans call it the first floor. In the UK, the first floor is the ...
I do not think so.
The algorithm selects a node which has an associated reward that is greater than or equal to the reward associated with any other node.
Or more concisely
The algorithm selects a node with an associated reward greater than or equal to any other.
The ideas that each node has an associated reward and that selection is based on the maximum ...
The meaning of "fly" here is this one:
American Heritage Dictionary "fly'
intransitive verb: c. To flee; escape.
The meaning of "before" here is simply "in front of", that is they were confronted by their enemy, who were pursuing them.
So, the phrase "the enemy before whom they would be flying" means "the ...
3. regard a quality or feature as characteristic of or possessed by (someone or something)
In that example, "feature" is a noun, and "characteristic" is an adjective, so they don't have the same meaning. Not all features are characteristic. For example, if a car has a pinstripe, that is a feature. If not all examples of that car have the ...
"Candy strip" is functioning as a verb.
A "candy striper" is a volunteer nurse (from the narrow striped pinafores that they traditionally wore), so "Candy-stripe a cancer ward" means "Work as volunteer in a cancer ward".
I have never seen went burgled. Using went in such a way is not idiomatic. Here's the ones I can think of:
went... hungry, crazy, south, away, missing, "the way of" (the dinosaurs, etc.)
A few of those have in common that the action occurs due to neglect of some sort, and your house might be burgled because you are not there, but it sounds very ...
The sentence means that the man he is speaking of was the best choice (the fittest)
to get the army out of its difficulties (to extricate it from its embarrassments)
and to lead (to conduct) it to safety.
The to-infinitive in that use is an infinitive of purpose. In the present, we could say
He is the best man to save the army.
meaning that he is the best ...
 These students are [difficult to teach].
 Different types of models will be necessary, [depending on what
forecast horizon is most important].
 Forecasts that need to be produced frequently are better [done using an
automated system than with methods that require careful manual work].
In  the infinitival clause is, as you say, complement of &...
Fainting tells us more about how and why Julian falls from his horse. So it is a participle used as an adverb modifying caused him to fall.
It's a construction that English speakers use all the time:
The dog came panting into the house
The girl ran yelling out of the room.
The hounds streaked baying after the fox.
All three of your examples are acceptable and understood by most English speakers. Although “cut out” could mean that you lost connection only momentarily. The call is still connected. But, you missed some words.
It might be grammatically correct in that the tenses agree and there's no obvious error, but semantically the sentence is nonsensical.
"The moment X happened, Y happened" states that X and Y happened pretty much simultaneously, with no time between the two actions. "Soon" means that a short but non-zero length of time has passed.
So it's ...
The enemy advanced in two lines – the first composed of [the mailed
horsemen and the archers intermixed], the second of the elephants.
I wouldn't call it postpositive since "intermixed" modifies the whole noun phrase coordination "the mailed horsemen and the archers".
Some speakers (including myself) would call it an adjective, others a ...
Participles can be used adjectivally. It is purely a matter of terminological convenience whether we distinguish between a "modifier" as a single category or break that category into the sub-categories of "adjective," "participle used adjectivally," and "attributive noun." The basic advantage of breaking the general ...
The verb phrase, unmodified is "make an offer of submission". To "make and offer" means to propose something, and to make an offer of submission means to propose to resign or accept defeat.
Then "has made an offer..." is the perfect tense (current state, but here an historical present tense is being used, we are telling a story ...
The verb show in the context offered presupposes using the pattern show something. It means that the sentence needs the grammatical structure Noun+show+that+noun+enter+truce. Transformation of the grammar construction gives The novelist shows that his two characters enter a truce.
We may construct other syntax, though the focus of the sentence will be ...
Google Ngram Viewer shows that 'a hard time to V' is used very rarely compared with 'a hard time V-ing'. I haven't fully checked the other words you list, but I suspect the same applies. If a student asked me this in class, I would immediately say 'a hard time V-ing'. 'a hard time to V' sounds awkward to me, and reading it in the major sources you have ...