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If we want to refer to an event out of order... we can use the past perfect. I went out, and when I returned I found that the cat had eaten the supper which I had left on the table. The past perfect is used here because the eating took place before the speaker returned home. If the speaker then gives the news to another person who arrives home, they can ...


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There is no real difference in meaning. Writing "had hated" seems more precise grammatically, placing the situation in the past, without continuation to the present. The simple past tense ("...men at New Haven hated his guts.") could suggest that the men who were at New Haven (Yale) then "hated his guts" then and now. But that ...


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"Has he ever spoken about..." sounds like he still has the chance to speak if he hasn't spoken yet. So it's not correct, because he's dead. "Ever" is often used with the perfect tenses, therefore it may indeed be "had he ever spoken." But this one is rarer than the perfectly fine "did he ever speak."


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It's not about whether "went by" happened before or after "had risen". It's about how "had risen" happens before "in 2001". The timeline of actions, from earlier to later, is: "40m tonnes going by" -> "amount of tonnes rising to 90m" -> "reaching the year 2001". A possible rephrased ...


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