Have + past participle => perfect (eg I have seen)
Be + present participle => continuous (eg I am wearing)
Put them together and you get
Have + past participle of be + present participle => perfect continuous (eg I have been wearing)
I have worn gloves usually means "On at least one occasion, not necessarily recently, I wore gloves" - the "present ...
The tense used is incorrect, it should be
I wished I had handed in the exam [paper] the next day.
But the sentence is ambiguous as to what "the next day" refers. If the regret, I suggest:
The next day, I wished I had handed in the exam paper.
If is the time when you handed in the paper:
I wished I had not handed in the exam paper a day early.
Well the larger issue is the second part of the sentence is not correct.
It should read "John was already dead when his crew finally found him in the lowest basement."
You would only use the form "had already been dead" if it was then followed by a time period - eg: "John had already been dead for hours by the time his crew finally found him in the lowest ...
You misunderstand how the passive voice works.
In an active sentence with a subject and an object
I eat the cheese.
The cheese is eaten (by me)
But an active clause which has no object cannot be changed to passive.
I work. (There is no passive equivalent)
You can change the verb, for example
I do the work-> The work is done (...
If you played regularly until four months ago, I haven't played for four months is appropriate.
I didn't play for four months would mean that there was a four-month period in the past when you didn't play.
....causing us to react as if we were are being chased by a predator.
as if we were being chased by a predator is the correct way of saying it.
"Slaves were treated as if they were animals"
"Tonight we celebrate as if we are immortal"
"I work after I get paid" cannot be changed into passive without the verb "work" having an object.
And then you somehow changed it into passive:- "A work is done after I get paid." How can you change the verb "work" into a noun while changing it into passive?
It should be like :- "I'm paid beforehand" or simply "I'm paid in advance".
I haven't played for four months
means you have not played the game in the four most recent months – until today.
I didn't play for four months
means that some time in the past there was a period of four months during which you did not play the game.
I didn't play for four months and when I started again, I was out of ...
"Today" covers the entire period of time from the beginning of the day to the end of the day. Therefore, parts of "today" can be in the past, parts of it can be in the present, and parts can even be in the future. The verb tense you use will reflect what part of "today" you're talking about:
Today, she is absent.
She is absent right now (e.g. "today's ...
The answer is that it depends.
If you have subsequently recovered your passport, the PAST PERFECT fits. (You had lost it but you have since found it.)
If you have not yet recovered your passport, you could use the PRESENT PERFECT. (It is still lost.)
In practice, many native English speakers would also use the PAST TENSE. But either the PAST PERFECT or ...
Your first sentence is correct and fairly natural. You are talking about him becoming cocky in the past (simple past tense), and you are using the past perfect tense for "he had gotten" to emphasize that that past event happened before the other past event.
(Note that you could also just use the simple past there ("After he got a PhD, he became so cocky"), ...
I think your understanding is reasonably close to correct, but it may be stated in a slightly more complicated way than is necessary. I would summarize the difference between these two tenses (in general) as:
Simple Past Tense
The simple past is the most neutral form. It just says that something occurred in the past, and doesn't say anything else (about ...
Before we get to verb tenses, there are actually a few other grammar problems with your sentences:
As folks have noted in the comments, "I" (the first-person singular pronoun) should always be capitalized.
"biological teacher" does not make a lot of sense. The word "biological" when referring to a person or position implies that someone is related to ...